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The Battle of Midway
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The Battle of Midway

The Battle of Midway, fought in June 1942, must be considered one of the most decisive battles of World War Two. The Battle of Midway effectively destroyed Japan's naval strength when the Americans destroyed four of its aircraft carriers. Japan's navy never recovered from its mauling at Midway and it was on the defensive after this battle.

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Medieval Students

The students at Oxford and Cambridge Universities were an integral part of the society that developed around these two medieval universities. Both Oxford and Cambridge Universities catered for scholars who could continue and build on research - but they were also major centres for student learning. The development of both universities can be seen as one of the most important developments in Medieval England.
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Medieval Towns

There were few towns in Medieval England and those that existed were very small by our standards. Most people in Medieval England were village peasants but religious centres did attract people and many developed into towns or cities. Outside of London, the largest towns in England were the cathedral cities of Lincoln, Canterbury, Chichester, York, Bath, Hereford etc.
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The Perkin Warbeck Rebellion

The Warbeck Rebellion was Henry VII's second rebellion to deal with after the Lambert Simnel Rebellion of 1486-87. The rebellion led by Perkin Warbeck was a long drawn out affair and lasted between 1491 and 1499. Whilst the rebellion was a curious affair it did show the fragility of Henry's position in the first half of his reign.
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Henry VII and the Royal Council

The king was the central figure of government in the reign of Henry VII. The inner circle of nobility that advised Henry VII was known as the Royal Council. The largest group within the Royal Council was those with a church background. Between 1485 and 1509, just about 50% of Henry's council was made up of clerics.
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Henry VII and the Economy

The economy that Henry VII inherited after the Battle of Bosworth was still recovering from both the impact of the Black Death, which had resulted in chronic population decline, and the War of the Roses. England's economy was primarily based on agriculture and common labourers did much of the work. Any major population decline - be it through plague or war (or a combination of both) - would have hit agriculture hard and therefore the economy.
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The Lambert Simnel Rebellion

Lambert Simnel presented Henry VII with the first major challenge of his reign. Lambert Simnel, a boy of ten, was used by others to reassert the House of York's claim to the throne. For Henry VII the problem was simple: if he failed to assert himself at the first opportunity he had to do so, then the probability was that Henry would fall from power.
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Prince Arthur

Prince Arthur was the eldest son of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York. Arthur's early death resulted in his younger brother Prince Henry becoming heir to the throne - the future Henry VIII. Arthur was born on September 20 th 1486 in Winchester. Henry VII's fascination with the legend of King Arthur meant that Elizabeth was told to go to Winchester - spiritual home of King Arthur's Round Table - to give birth.
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Henry VIII - a description

The following is a description of Henry VIII. It comes from a Venetian diplomat called Pasqualigo who wrote it in 1515 in a dispatch back to Venice. An English politician potentially faced the loss of everything if he made any disparaging remarks against Henry VIII, especially over the king's appearance, which Henry took very seriously…Pasqualigo was free from the threat of any such comeback.
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Challenges to Royal Supremacy

The religious changes that occurred in the early 1530's were undoubtedly of major importance but it was not true that everyone accepted them. Groups of opponents to these changes developed and one of these revolved around Elizabeth Barton - the Holy Maid of Kent. Barton, a nun at St. Sepulchre's Convent in Canterbury, claimed that she had a series of visions of the Virgin Mary and that she had been spoken to.
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Henry VIII and law and order

Henry VIII had a strained relationship with England's nobles as those in the 'White Rose Party' discovered to their cost. However, when it came to law and order within England and Wales, Henry VIII had no choice but to trust those who he clearly showed he had little trust of. Henry was based in London and parts of his kingdom were days away in terms of communication.
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Catherine Howard

Catherine Howard was born into one of the most famous of noble families - Catherine's father was the younger brother of the Duke of Norfolk. Catherine became Henry VIII's fifth wife. She was Anne Boleyn's cousin and in the social circle in which she lived, it would have been expected that she would have been seen by Henry, who after the divorce from Anne of Cleves, was once again looking for a wife.
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Cardinal Wolsey

Cardinal Thomas Wolsey was born in c1473 and died in November 1530. Wolsey was Henry VIII's most important government minister who acquired much power which ended only after he failed to secure for Henry a divorce from Catherine of Aragon. Wolsey was the son of a butcher and cattle dealer. He had a relatively comfortable upbringing and was educated at Magdalen College, Oxford University.
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Anne of Cleves

Anne of Cleves was Henry VIII's fourth wife. Anne was from the small north German state of Cleves. Her brother, William, ruled Cleves but realised that his sister's marriage to the king of England would greatly enhance his status. After the divorce of Catherine, the execution of Anne and the early death of Jane, few noble women in England were willing to marry Henry.
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Anne of Cleves

Anne of Cleves was Henry VIII's fourth wife. Anne was from the small north German state of Cleves. Her brother, William, ruled Cleves but realised that his sister's marriage to the king of England would greatly enhance his status. After the divorce of Catherine, the execution of Anne and the early death of Jane, few noble women in England were willing to marry Henry.
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Sir Thomas More

Sir Thomas More was a major figure in the reign of Henry VIII. A leading Roman Catholic, Thomas More was also a supporter of the Humanist movement. More opposed the move to what was termed the Reformation in England - a stance that led to More being executed. Sir Thomas More was born in 1478. He had the advantage as a child of being born into a wealthy family.
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Henry VIII and Ireland

Ireland played a minor part in the reign of Henry VIII. Royal concern in Ireland extended as far as the Pale - four small counties around Dublin. The Irish nobility ruled the area around the Pale - known as the Colony. Royal decrees had given them the right to do this. The most powerful family was the Fitzgerald's, the Earls of Kildare.
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Thomas Cromwell and Henry VIII

What was the relationship between Thomas Cromwell and Henry VIII? It would be natural to view the relationship as a failure in view of the execution of Thomas Cromwell in 1540. However, while it is difficult to argue against this in terms of the final aspect of their relationship, it was not always so.
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Mary I

Mary I is also referred to as Mary Tudor or “Bloody Mary”. Mary's father was Henry VIII and her mother was Catherine of Aragon, Henry's first wife. She was crowned only after the attempt to put Lady Jane Grey on the throne. Mary I was queen from 1553 to 1558. When she was crowned queen, she was very popular with the people of England.
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Mary's claim to the throne

Mary Tudor's claim to the throne was effectively enshrined in law. Mary was the legitimate daughter of Henry VIII and his first wife Catherine of Aragon. While the law stated that Edward, as a boy, had the right to succeed his father despite being the youngest of the late king's children, Mary was legitimately the next in line.
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Foreign Policy 1549 to 1553

By the fall of Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset, England was in a precarious position with regards to her relationships in Europe. Scotland and France had been alienated. The Protestantism that had been developing in the Church of England had angered the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V. Spain, along with its ardent Catholicism, had never forgiven England for its treatment of Catherine of Aragon.
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