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Is it possible to find out on what Roman day of the week Jesus resurrected?

Is it possible to find out on what Roman day of the week Jesus resurrected?



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According to the bible Jesus resurrected at the first day of the week. Nowadays we would call that day Sunday. But the first day of the week is based on the Hebrew calendar. In those days the Jews were colonized by the Roman empire and they used the Julian calendar. The week of the Romans in those days had 8 days and were called from A till H. I don't know what their 'holy day' was or their rest day.

But is it possible in some way to find out how the Hebrew weekdays in the time of Jesus' resurrection correspond with the Roman days?


This is actually a subject of much debate. More interestingly, the answer depends on which Gospel account you are reading*.

For the Synoptics, the Last Supper is the key. They report it as a Passover meal, which by definition puts it on 14 Nisan. The crucifixion is (strongly implied at least) the next day, so 15 Nisan.

For John, its Jesus' trial that clues us in. It occurred on the Day of Preparation prior to Passover, placing the crucifixion itself on 14 Nisan. This chronology may have been influenced by a desire in John to equate Jesus to the traditional Passover sacrifice (the Paschal Lamb)2

As for the day of the week, all four Gospels agree it was a few hours before the start of the Sabbath (IOW: a Friday).

1 - Sadly for the literalists, there are rather a lot of inconsistencies between the four different Gospels. Generally a believer has to either ignore the scholoarly research, or dump literalism.

2 - John was the latest of the Gospels written. For historians that makes it the least certain. However, it is easily the most poetic.


You have the wrong idea about Judea. It was not "colonized" by the Romans. There were no Romans in Jerusalem, the location of Jesus' death. Jerusalem did not use the Roman calendar in any way.

The Roman praetor who technically ruled Judea was located in Caesarea, almost 60 miles away, a three-day journey.

Also, remember that in Judea virtually nobody spoke Latin, so from that alone it would not have been practical to adopt Roman customs like their dating system. Judea had only been a satellite of Roman for about 50 years at that time and was largely autonomous, being rule by the Hasmoneans, a native people who spoke Assyrian and used the Babylonian calendar, which was identical to the Hebrew calendar.

Both the Gospels and the Talmud say He was executed on the day-eve of Passover, but the day of the week can vary, so without knowing the exact year it is impossible to say the day of the week, and moreover, even if we knew the exact year, there are number of calendrical uncertainties, such as movable leap days, that would still leave it in doubt.


Is it possible to know when Jesus is coming back?

Matthew 24:36-44 declares, “No one knows about that day or hour, not even the angels in heaven, nor the Son, but only the Father…Therefore keep watch, because you do not know on what day your Lord will come…So you also must be ready, because the Son of Man will come at an hour when you do not expect Him.” At first glance, these verses would seem to provide a clear and explicit answer to the question. No, no one can know when Jesus is coming back. However, those verses do not say that no one will ever be able to know when Jesus will return. Most Bible scholars would say that Jesus, now glorified in heaven, knows the timing of His return, indicating that the phrase “nor the Son” does not mean Jesus will never know when He will return. Similarly, it is possible that, while Matthew 24:36-44 indicates that no one at that time could know the timing of Jesus’ return, God could reveal the timing of Jesus’ return to someone in the future.

In addition, there is Acts 1:7, which states, "It is not for you to know the times or dates the Father has set by His own authority." This was said by Jesus after the disciples asked Him if He was at that time going to restore the kingdom to Israel. This would seem to confirm the message of Matthew 24. It is not for us to know the timing of Jesus coming back. But there is also the question of which return these passages are referring to. Are they speaking of the Rapture or the Second Coming? Which return is unknowable—the Rapture, the Second Coming, or both? While the Rapture is presented as being imminent and mysterious, the timing of the Second Coming could potentially be known based on end-times prophecy.

With that said, let us be abundantly clear: we do not believe that God has revealed to anyone when Jesus is coming back, and we see nothing in Scripture which indicates that God will ever reveal to anyone when Jesus is coming back. Matthew 24:36-44, while spoken directly to the people in Jesus’ time, also contains a general principle. The timing of Jesus’ return and the end of the age is not for us to know. Scripture nowhere encourages us to try to determine the date. Rather, we are to “keep watch, because we do not know on which day our Lord will come” (v. 42). We are to “be ready, because the Son of Man will come at an hour when we do not expect Him” (v. 44). The force of Jesus’ words diminishes if at some point in the future someone will be able to determine when He is coming back. If the date is discovered, we no longer need to “keep watch” or “be ready.” So, with the principle of Matthew 24:36-44 in mind, no, it is not possible for anyone to know the date that Jesus is coming back.

Despite this clear biblical principle, many throughout Christian history have attempted to prophesy the date that Jesus is coming back. Many such dates have been proposed, and all of them have been wrong. Most, if not all, of those who have predicted specific dates for Jesus’ return have had questionable, if not heretical, doctrinal positions on other issues. As it was said above, based on Matthew 24:36 and Acts 1:7, it is not God’s desire for us to calculate the day that Jesus is coming back. Anyone who undertakes such a task is, if nothing else, misguided.

The key points are (1) the Bible nowhere encourages us to attempt to discover the timing of Jesus’ return and (2) the Bible gives no explicit data by which the timing of Jesus’ return can be determined. Rather than developing wild and speculative calculations to determine when Jesus is coming back, the Bible encourages us to “keep watch” and “be ready” (Matthew 24:42-44). The fact that the day of Jesus’ return is unknown should motivate us to live every day in light of the imminence of Christ’s return.


45 Replies to &ldquoThe Resurrection Appearances Chronologically Arranged&rdquo

I always wondered about the cloth napkin that was folded. If Jesus rose from the dead when no one was around to see it, why would he fold the head piece but leave the rest in a heap? What about this theory: Someone came to annoint the body (or maybe double check to see if it was really Jesus?) before everyone else arrived. They started by unwrapping his head. Something caused them to leave the task undone, as they left the napkin folded…. Maybe the stone was left open just enough that a small person could pass through (it would have been open wider when Jesus was carried in, and then the stone rolled to mostly cover the entrance. He was placed there as the sun was setting, so there was little time. Besides, there were temple guards, so a small opening wouldn’t have been unimaginable.

1. Mary, mother of Jesus, comes to the tomb just before sunrise so as to be there at the crack of dawn to anoint her son. Love compels her to be there at the first possible moment. She waits, in the dark, in prayer. Just before dawn, though, an earthquake rolls the stone slightly, just enough for her to slip in. She goes in and is unwrapping the head, and…. Jesus opens His eyes and speaks to her. He is alive! He tells her to go and wait for the others. They, too, need to discover that he has risen from the dead and see it for themselves. A second, larger earthquake rolls the stone away completely. Jesus leaves the grave. Mary returns home and waits for the others to make the discovery. A few minutes after Mary departs, Mary Magdalene arrives and the rest is recorded in the gospels.

2. Joseph of Arimathea goes to anoint the body properly. He is wealthy, and out of love for Jesus he decides to do this task himself. The rest is similar to the above scenario, except Jesus does not tell Joseph to keep the news to himself. Joseph is told to go out and find the Apostles. Jesus (of course) tells him where they are, but Joseph walks (he is middle aged) whereas Mary Magdalene will run once she discovers the empty tomb just a few minutes later. The rest takes place as recorded in the gospel.

Just a thought –
Sister Mary Margaret

I do not know… I always though that Jesus, or rather, one of the angels, folded the cloth.

This was left as a sign, of course, that the body was not stolen.
Why would thieves bother even taking the cloth or the bandages off Jesus if they were stealing the body, and certainly they would not have lost time folding cloths.

From the resurrection accounts it seems to me that the Tomb was guarded by multiple guards and then there was a small earthquake that rolled the huge rock away from the entrance, also scaring the guards away (see Matthew’s version).

Then, the next people to see the tomb appear to be the Women since they are the ones first seeing that the body was missing.

Of course someone could have started the embalming on Saturday evening (then the Sabbath would be over, but Jesus was not raised yet, as you know days in I century Israel ended in the evening, not midnight.) but I think that is rather unlikely. An early embalmer would not let the cloth there folded, he would just put it back on Jesus again, I suppose.

Also there is no report what so ever of this in the gospels (which might just be omitted of course), although it seems a detail that at least one of the four evangelist or at least oral tradition would have cared to remember.

I think it was really the Women who got there first since Jesus was put in the tomb on Friday afternoon.

My understanding of the face cloth is twofold. First it was the most precious of the burial cloths and the thought that grave robbers (had there been any) would have left it behind is unthinkable. Hence its mere presence is evidence that this was NOT grave robbery. Secondly that it is folded indicates a careful, not a hasty exit. Here too is more evidence not of the haste of thieves but of resurrection.

We must be careful not to infuse details or information that are not part of the Word. Our imaginations can get carried away. If in fact some of the things you suggest did happen why was it not written? In both scenarios you appear to say that Jesus’ appearance is that of the physical body. Our true appearance after resurrection would not be the same as the physical one. This is why many of the instances where Jesus appears, he is not immediately recognized.

this is actually a forshadowing and is very on purpose . in Hebrew custom when at a meal the person eating the meal would leave their table cloth open to let the servant know that they were done with their meal but if the table cloth was folded it was to let the servant know that the master was returning to finish this was to symbolize that Jesus was leaving but would return as he did for 49 days and that he would ultimately return on the earth in his second coming .

the apostles surely exclaimed to Thomas that they had seen the Lord but he refused to believe it

I’ve said this before, but I think that Thomas gets a bit of a bad rap, especially since most people are no better than he is. After all, we are bodily creatures who learn and know things through our senses.

But I’m not so sure that Thomas did not believe. All we have is Thomas saying that he would not believe. Inwardly, he might have believed, but thought it too fantastic to be true. That Thomas would experience cognitive dissonance would not be surprising. And if we parse the translation further, he says, “I will not believe,” not “I do not believe” or “I cannot believe.” Rather, his is a statement of will. (Of course, this is from the English translation.)

Why this verbal expression of willed non-belief? It could be because he is weak in the faith and needs proof, but earlier he was strong enough in the faith to be willing to die with Jesus if necessary. (Jn 11:16).

Or it could be because he wants to see Jesus too. Thomas misses Him, he wants to be with Him, and this is a way to kind of prompt Jesus to come. Besides, Thomas placing his fingers and hands in the holes plays a significant and substantial role — Thomas provides a first-hand witness that Jesus is not a ghost, and He had been really and truly dead. Thomas also provides the necessary witness that Jesus forever carries with Him the wounds of the Passion.

If we ask why Thomas said that he would not believe, perhaps we must also ask why Jesus appeared in the first place to the Apostles when Thomas was absent? Why did Jesus choose that particular time to come? Presumably, He wanted Thomas to miss out He wanted to place Thomas in the position of asking to see for himself so that Thomas could provide that hands-on witness that has since been given to us.

OK, but isn’t your beef really with Jesus who rebuked Thomas. He also rebuked the other Apostles for not believing what the women and the disciples from Emmaus said.


Jesus Wasn't Crucified on Friday or Resurrected on Sunday

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Jesus Wasn't Crucified on Friday or Resurrected on Sunday: How long was Jesus in the tomb?

About one billion Protestants and another billion Catholics believe that Jesus Christ was crucified and entombed on a Friday afternoon—"Good Friday"—and raised to life again at daybreak on Easter Sunday morning, a day and a half later.

Yet when we compare this to what Jesus Himself said about how long He would be entombed, we find a major contradiction. How long did Jesus say He would be in the grave? "For as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of the great fish, so will the Son of Man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth" (Matthew 12:40 Matthew 12:40 For as Jonas was three days and three nights in the whale's belly so shall the Son of man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth.
American King James Version× ).

The key to understanding the timing of Christ's crucifixion and resurrection lies in understanding God's timetable for counting when days begin and end, as well as the timing of His biblical festivals during the spring of the year when these events took place.

The context in which Jesus Christ said these words is important. The scribes and Pharisees were demanding a miraculous sign from Him to prove that He was indeed the long-awaited Messiah. "But He answered and said to them, 'An evil and adulterous generation seeks after a sign, and no sign will be given to it except the sign of the prophet Jonah'" (verse 39).

This was the only sign Jesus gave that He was the promised Messiah: "For as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of the great fish, so will the Son of Man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth" (emphasis added throughout).

Traditional timing doesn't add up

The Gospels are clear that Jesus died and His body was hurriedly placed in the tomb late in the afternoon, just before sundown when a Sabbath began (John 19:30-42 John 19:30-42 [30] When Jesus therefore had received the vinegar, he said, It is finished: and he bowed his head, and gave up the ghost. [31] The Jews therefore, because it was the preparation, that the bodies should not remain on the cross on the sabbath day, (for that sabbath day was an high day,) sought Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away. [32] Then came the soldiers, and broke the legs of the first, and of the other which was crucified with him. [33] But when they came to Jesus, and saw that he was dead already, they broke not his legs: [34] But one of the soldiers with a spear pierced his side, and immediately came there out blood and water. [35] And he that saw it bore record, and his record is true: and he knows that he said true, that you might believe. [36] For these things were done, that the scripture should be fulfilled, A bone of him shall not be broken. [37] And again another scripture said, They shall look on him whom they pierced. [38] And after this Joseph of Arimathaea, being a disciple of Jesus, but secretly for fear of the Jews, sought Pilate that he might take away the body of Jesus: and Pilate gave him leave. He came therefore, and took the body of Jesus. [39] And there came also Nicodemus, which at the first came to Jesus by night, and brought a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about an hundred pound weight. [40] Then took they the body of Jesus, and wound it in linen clothes with the spices, as the manner of the Jews is to bury. [41] Now in the place where he was crucified there was a garden and in the garden a new sepulcher, wherein was never man yet laid. [42] There laid they Jesus therefore because of the Jews' preparation day for the sepulcher was near at hand.
American King James Version× ).

By the traditional "Good Friday–Easter Sunday" timing, from Friday sundown to Saturday sundown is one night and one day. Saturday night to Sunday daybreak is another night, giving us two nights and one day.

So where do we get another night and two days to equal the three days and three nights Jesus said He would be in the tomb?

This is definitely a problem. Most theologians and religious scholars try to work around it by arguing that any part of a day or night counts as a day or night. Thus, they say, the final few minutes of that Friday afternoon were the first day, all day Saturday was the second day, and the first few minutes of Sunday morning were the third day.

Sounds reasonable, doesn't it?

The trouble is, it doesn't work. This only adds up to three days and two nights, not three days and three nights.

Also, John 20:1 John 20:1 The first day of the week comes Mary Magdalene early, when it was yet dark, to the sepulcher, and sees the stone taken away from the sepulcher.
American King James Version× tells us that "on the first day of the week Mary Magdalene went to the tomb early, while it was still dark, and saw that the stone had been taken away from the tomb."

Infographic: Three Days & Three Nights - The Chronology of Jesus Christ's Death, Burial and Resurrection
The choice of a Sunday date for Easter is based on the assumption that Christ rose from the grave early on a Sunday morning. The popular belief is that Christ was crucified on a Friday and rose on a Sunday. But neither of these suppositions is true. A close reading of the Bible makes that quite clear.

Did you catch the problem here? John tells us it was still dark when Mary went to the tomb on Sunday morning and found it empty. Jesus was already resurrected well before daybreak. Thus He wasn't in the tomb any of the daylight portion of Sunday, so none of that can be counted as a day.

That leaves us with, at most, part of a day on Friday, all of Friday night, a whole daylight portion on Saturday, and most of Saturday night. That totals one full day and part of another, and one full night and most of another—still at least a full day and a full night short of the time Jesus said He would be in the tomb.

Clearly something doesn't add up. Either Jesus misspoke about the length of time He would be in the tomb, or the "Good Friday–Easter Sunday" timing is not biblical or accurate.

Obviously both cannot be true. So which one is right?

Understanding God's time is the key

The key to understanding the timing of Christ's crucifixion and resurrection lies in understanding God's timetable for counting when days begin and end, as well as the timing of His biblical festivals during the spring of the year when these events took place.

Most people have no idea that the Bible talks about two kinds of Sabbath days—the normal weekly Sabbath day that falls on the seventh day of the week and seven annual Sabbath days.

We first need to realize that God doesn't begin and end days at midnight as we do—that is a humanly devised method of counting time. Genesis 1:5 Genesis 1:5 And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And the evening and the morning were the first day.
American King James Version× tells us quite plainly that God counts a day as beginning with the evening (the night portion) and ending at the next evening—"So the evening [nighttime] and the morning [daylight] were the first day." God repeats this formula for the entire six days of creation.

In Leviticus 23, where God lists all of His holy Sabbaths and festivals, He makes it clear that they are to be observed "from evening to evening" (Leviticus 23:32 Leviticus 23:32 It shall be to you a sabbath of rest, and you shall afflict your souls: in the ninth day of the month at even, from even to even, shall you celebrate your sabbath.
American King James Version× )—in other words, from sunset to sunset, when the sun went down and evening began.

This is why Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus, followers of Jesus, hurriedly placed His body in Joseph's nearby tomb just before sundown (John 19:39-42 John 19:39-42 [39] And there came also Nicodemus, which at the first came to Jesus by night, and brought a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about an hundred pound weight. [40] Then took they the body of Jesus, and wound it in linen clothes with the spices, as the manner of the Jews is to bury. [41] Now in the place where he was crucified there was a garden and in the garden a new sepulcher, wherein was never man yet laid. [42] There laid they Jesus therefore because of the Jews' preparation day for the sepulcher was near at hand.
American King James Version× ). A Sabbath was beginning at sundown (John 19:31 John 19:31 The Jews therefore, because it was the preparation, that the bodies should not remain on the cross on the sabbath day, (for that sabbath day was an high day,) sought Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away.
American King James Version× ), when work would have to cease.

Two kinds of "Sabbaths" lead to confusion

As John tells us in John 19:31 John 19:31 The Jews therefore, because it was the preparation, that the bodies should not remain on the cross on the sabbath day, (for that sabbath day was an high day,) sought Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away.
American King James Version× : "Therefore, because it was the Preparation Day, that the bodies [of those crucified] should not remain on the cross on the Sabbath (for that Sabbath was a high day), the Jews asked Pilate that their legs might be broken [to hasten death], and that they might be taken away."

In the Jewish culture of that time, the chores of cooking and housecleaning were done on the day before a Sabbath to avoid working on God's designated day of rest. Thus the day before the Sabbath was commonly called "the preparation day." Clearly the day on which Christ was crucified and His body placed in the tomb was the day immediately preceding a Sabbath.

The question is, which Sabbath?

Most people assume John is speaking of the regular weekly Sabbath day, observed from Friday sunset to Saturday sunset. From John's clear statement here, most people assume Jesus died and was buried on a Friday—thus the traditional belief that Jesus was crucified and died on "Good Friday."

Most people have no idea that the Bible talks about two kinds of Sabbath days—the normal weekly Sabbath day that falls on the seventh day of the week (not to be confused with Sunday, which is the first day of the week), and seven annual Sabbath days, listed in Leviticus 23 and mentioned in various passages throughout the Bible, that could fall on any day of the week.

Because traditional Christianity long ago abandoned these biblical annual Sabbath days (as well as the weekly Sabbath), for many centuries people have failed to recognize what the Gospels plainly tell us about when Jesus Christ was crucified and resurrected—and why "Good Friday–Easter Sunday" never happened that way.

Most people fail to note that John explicitly tells us that the Sabbath that began at sundown immediately after Jesus was entombed was one of these annual Sabbath days. Notice in John 19:31 John 19:31 The Jews therefore, because it was the preparation, that the bodies should not remain on the cross on the sabbath day, (for that sabbath day was an high day,) sought Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away.
American King James Version× his explanation that "that Sabbath was a high day" —" high day" being a term used to differentiate the seven annual Sabbaths from the regular weekly Sabbath days.

So what was this "high day" that immediately followed Jesus Christ's hurried entombment?

The Gospels tell us that on the evening before Jesus was condemned and crucified, He kept the Passover with His disciples (Matthew 26:19-20 Matthew 26:19-20 [19] And the disciples did as Jesus had appointed them and they made ready the passover. [20] Now when the even was come, he sat down with the twelve.
American King James Version× Mark 14:16-17 Mark 14:16-17 [16] And his disciples went forth, and came into the city, and found as he had said to them: and they made ready the passover. [17] And in the evening he comes with the twelve.
American King James Version× Luke 22:13-15 Luke 22:13-15 [13] And they went, and found as he had said to them: and they made ready the passover. [14] And when the hour was come, he sat down, and the twelve apostles with him. [15] And he said to them, With desire I have desired to eat this passover with you before I suffer:
American King James Version× ). This means He was crucified on the Passover day.

Leviticus 23, which lists God's festivals, tells us that on the day after the Passover a separate festival, the Feast of Unleavened Bread, begins (Leviticus 23:5-6 Leviticus 23:5-6 [5] In the fourteenth day of the first month at even is the LORD's passover. [6] And on the fifteenth day of the same month is the feast of unleavened bread to the LORD: seven days you must eat unleavened bread.
American King James Version× ). The first day of this Feast is "a holy convocation" on which "no customary work" is to be done (Leviticus 23:7 Leviticus 23:7 In the first day you shall have an holy convocation: you shall do no servile work therein.
American King James Version× ).

This day is the first of God's annual Sabbaths. This is the "high day" of which John wrote. Several Bible commentaries, encyclopedias and dictionaries note that John is referring to an annual Sabbath here rather than the regular weekly Sabbath day.

Passover began at sundown and ended the following day at sundown, when this annual Sabbath began. Jesus kept the Passover with His disciples, then was arrested later that night. After daybreak the next day He was questioned before Pontius Pilate, crucified, then hurriedly entombed just before the next sunset when the "high day," the first day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread, began.

Leviticus 23 tells us the order and timing of these days, and the Gospels confirm the order of events as they unfolded.

Jesus crucified on Wednesday, not Friday

Several computer software programs exist that enable us to calculate when the Passover and God's other festivals fall in any given year. Those programs show that in A.D. 31, the year of these events, the Passover meal was eaten on Tuesday night and Wednesday sundown marked the beginning of the "high day," the first day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread.

Jesus, then, was crucified and entombed on a Wednesday afternoon, not on Friday.

Try as you might, it is impossible to fit three days and three nights between a late Friday burial and a Sunday morning resurrection. The Good Friday–Easter Sunday tradition simply isn't true or biblical.

Can we find further proof of this in the Gospels? Yes, indeed we can!

Let's turn to a seldom-noticed detail in Mark 16:1 Mark 16:1 And when the sabbath was past, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James, and Salome, had bought sweet spices, that they might come and anoint him.
American King James Version× : "Now when the Sabbath was past, Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James, and Salome bought spices, that they might come and anoint Him."

In that time, if the body of a loved one was placed in a tomb rather than being buried directly in the ground, friends and family would commonly place aromatic spices in the tomb alongside the body to reduce the smell as the remains decayed.

Since Jesus' body was placed in the tomb just before that high-day Sabbath began, the women had no time to buy those spices before the Sabbath. Also, they could not have purchased them on the Sabbath day, as shops were closed. Thus, Mark says, they bought the spices after the Sabbath— "when the Sabbath was past."

But notice another revealing detail in Luke 23:55-56 Luke 23:55-56 [55] And the women also, which came with him from Galilee, followed after, and beheld the sepulcher, and how his body was laid. [56] And they returned, and prepared spices and ointments and rested the sabbath day according to the commandment.
American King James Version× : "And the women who had come with [Christ] from Galilee followed after, and they observed the tomb and how His body was laid. Then they returned and prepared spices and fragrant oils. And they rested on the Sabbath according to the commandment."

Do you see a problem here? Mark clearly states that the women bought the spices after the Sabbath—"when the Sabbath was past." Luke tells us that the women prepared the spices and fragrant oils, after which "they rested on the Sabbath according to the commandment."

So they bought the spices after the Sabbath, and then they prepared the spices before resting on the Sabbath. This is a clear contradiction between these two Gospel accounts—unless two Sabbaths were involved!

Indeed when we understand that two different Sabbaths are mentioned, the problem goes away.

Mark tells us that after the "high day" Sabbath, which began Wednesday evening at sundown and ended Thursday evening at sundown, the women bought the spices to anoint Jesus' body. Luke then tells us that the women prepared the spices—activity which would have taken place on Friday—and that afterward "they rested on the Sabbath [the normal weekly Sabbath day, observed Friday sunset to Saturday sunset] according to the commandment."

By comparing details in both accounts, we can clearly see that two different Sabbaths are mentioned along with a workday in between. The first Sabbath was a "high day"—the first day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread, which fell on a Thursday. The second was the weekly seventh-day Sabbath.

The original Greek in which the Gospels were written also plainly tells us that two Sabbath days were involved in these accounts. In Matthew 28:1 Matthew 28:1 In the end of the sabbath, as it began to dawn toward the first day of the week, came Mary Magdalene and the other Mary to see the sepulcher.
American King James Version× , where Matthew writes that the women went to the tomb "after the Sabbath," the word Sabbath here is actually plural and should be translated "Sabbaths." Bible versions such as Alfred Marshall's Interlinear Greek-English New Testament, Green's Literal Translation Young's Literal Translation and Ferrar Fenton's Translation make this clear.

When was Jesus resurrected?

We have seen, then, that Jesus Christ was crucified and entombed on a Wednesday, just before an annual Sabbath began—not the weekly Sabbath. So when was He resurrected?

John 20:1 John 20:1 The first day of the week comes Mary Magdalene early, when it was yet dark, to the sepulcher, and sees the stone taken away from the sepulcher.
American King James Version× , as noted earlier, tells us that "on the first day of the week Mary Magdalene went to the tomb early, while it was still dark, and saw that the stone had been taken away from the tomb." The sun had not yet risen— "it was still dark," John tells us—when Mary found the tomb empty.

Obviously, then, Jesus was not resurrected at sunrise on Sunday morning. So when did this take place? The answer is plain if we simply read the Gospels—and Jesus Christ's own words—and accept them for what they say.

"For as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of the great fish, so will the Son of Man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth," said Jesus (Matthew 12:40 Matthew 12:40 For as Jonas was three days and three nights in the whale's belly so shall the Son of man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth.
American King James Version× ).

As we have proven, Jesus was entombed —placed "in the heart of the earth"—just before sundown on a Wednesday. All we have to do is count forward. One day and one night brings us to Thursday at sundown. Another day and night brings us to Friday at sundown. A third day and night brings us to Saturday at sundown.

According to Jesus Christ's own words He would have been resurrected three days and nights after He was entombed, at around the same time—near sunset. Does this fit with the Scriptures? Yes—as we have seen, He was already risen and the tomb empty when Mary arrived "while it was still dark" on Sunday morning.

While no one was around to witness His resurrection (which took place inside a sealed tomb watched over by armed guards), Jesus Christ's own words and the details recorded in the Gospels show that it had to have happened three days and three nights after His burial, near sunset at the end of the weekly Sabbath.

Try as you might, it is impossible to fit three days and three nights between a late Friday burial and a Sunday morning resurrection. The Good Friday–Easter Sunday tradition simply isn't true or biblical. But when we look at all the details recorded in the Gospels and compare them with Jesus' own words, we can see the truth—and it matches perfectly.

The words of the angel of God, who so startled the women at the empty tomb, are proven true: "Do not be afraid, for I know that you are looking for Jesus, who was crucified. He is not here he has risen, just as he said" (Matthew 28:5-6 Matthew 28:5-6 [5] And the angel answered and said to the women, Fear not you: for I know that you seek Jesus, which was crucified. [6] He is not here: for he is risen, as he said. Come, see the place where the Lord lay.
American King James Version× , New International Version).

Let's not cling to religious traditions and ideas that aren't supported by Scripture. Be sure that your own beliefs and practices are firmly rooted in the Bible. Are you willing to make a commitment to worship God according to biblical truth rather than human tradition?


Constantine I & Hillel II: Two Men Who Deceived the Whole World

In the fourth century C.E., the ancient Sabbath was supplanted by Saturday through a change in calendars.
The true Sabbath of Scripture was lost.


One of the greatest frauds in the history of the world was perpetrated almost 1,700 years ago by the actions of two men. The Roman emperor, Constantine, committed a portentous act: he unified his empire by promoting Sunday as the day of Yahushua&rsquos resurrection and outlawed the use of the Biblical calendar for calculating Passover. This set in motion a series of reactions. Jewish leader Hillel II responded to the persecution following this legislation by a modification of the Biblical calendar. This supplanted the true Sabbath with the pagan Saturday. It was a chain of actions and reactions of epic proportions. The ramifications continue to this day with every Christian and Jew that worships by the Gregorian calendar.

ACTION

Constantine

The fourth century was a vast sea change in the tumultuous ocean current of history. Christianity was gaining an ever-larger presence in the Roman Empire, while paganism remained the dominating influence. The time was ripe for someone with the power and initiative to take advantage of a unique time in history.

St. Constantine the Great (c. 272 &ndash 337 C.E.) is widely viewed as the first &ldquoChristian&rdquo emperor of the Roman Empire. The reality is he was, first and foremost, a pagan. He allowed himself to be baptized shortly before his death, but he retained his position as head of the state religion and carried its title, Pontifex Maximus, until his death. [1] Even Catholics admit Constantine retained the office of pontifex maximus after his so-called &ldquoconversion.&rdquo [2]

Constantine was also a brilliant strategist with a political agenda. He wanted to unite the two most influential factions in his empire: pagans and Christians. Jews were a despised minority whose influence was to be contained and marginalized. Thus, Constantine&rsquos efforts to unite his empire focused on finding a common ground to unite the pagans and western, paganized Christians. He found this in Sunday of the pagan, planetary week.

The early Julian calendar, like that of the Roman Republic before it, had an eight-day week. The letters A through H represented the days of the week. At that time, different countries used different means of keeping track of time and within the Roman Empire itself, there were regional differences in the Julian calendar. The pagan seven-day planetary week came to Rome in the first century B.C.E. [3]

Despite the emergence of the planetary week, the early Julian calendar continued to use an eight-day week for some time. &ldquoThe nundinal [eight-day] cycle was eventually replaced by the modern seven-day week, which first came into use in Italy during the early imperial period, [4] after the Julian calendar had come into effect in 45 BC. The system of nundinal letters was also adapted for the [seven-day] week&hellip. For a while, the week and the nundinal cycle coexisted, but by the time the week was officially adopted by Constantine in AD 321, the nundinal cycle had fallen out of use.&rdquo [5] While the pagan planetary week of seven days was known by the Romans and used regionally, the Julian calendar in use during and immediately following the life of Yahushua, still used an eight-day week.

This fact is supported by archeological evidence: the Julian fasti still in existence today show either eight-day weeks or list both eight-day and seven-day weeks on the same calendar.

The decline of the eight-day week coincided with the expansion of Rome. . . . The astrological [planetary] and Christian seven-day weeks that had just been introduced into Rome were also becoming increasingly popular. There is evidence indicating that the Roman eight-day week and those two seven-day cycles were used simultaneously for some time. However, the coexistence of two weekly rhythms that were entirely out of phase with one another obviously could not be sustained for long. One of them clearly had to give way. As we all know, it was the eight-day week that soon disappeared from the pages of history forever. [6]

This was not an immediate transformation. As the seven-day planetary week became more popular, the use of the letters (A through G) to designate days was laid aside and the days of the week were named after the planetary gods.

It is not to be doubted that the diffusion of the Iranian [Persian] mysteries has had a considerable part in the general adoption, by the pagans, of the week with the Sunday as a holy day. The names which we employ, unawares, for the other six days, came into use at the same time that Mithraism won its followers in the provinces in the West, and one is not rash in establishing a relation of coincidence between its triumph and that concomitant phenomenon. [7]

Archeological evidence shows Christians double dating their sepulcher inscriptions, giving both the solar Julian date and the corresponding date on the luni-solar Biblical calendar. One such inscription, dated Friday, November 5, 269 C.E. states: &ldquoIn the consulship of Claudius and Paternus, on the Nones of November, on the day of Venus, and on the 24 th day of the lunar month, Leuces placed [this memorial] to her very dear daughter Severa, and to Thy Holy Spirit. She died [at the age] of 55 years, and 11 months, [and] 10 days.&rdquo [8]

This stick calendar from the Baths of Titus, constructed in 79 - 81 C.E. shows Saturn, holding his sickle, as god of the first day of the week (Saturday). The sun god is next (Sunday), followed by the moon goddess (Monday) on the third day of the week.

This was the situation Constantine took advantage of for furthering his political agenda. It was a delicate balancing act that favored the pagan faction more than the Christian. First, he enacted a series of laws that honored the day of the Sun, dies Solis, or Sunday. On the original planetary week, Saturday had actually been the first day of the week. Sunday was the second day of the week and Friday was the seventh day.

The sun, however, was Constantine&rsquos personal symbol. He had Sol Invictus (Unconquered Sun) inscribed on his coins and it remained his personal motto all his life. Exalting Sunday was acceptable to pagans and something on which some Christians had already compromised. By the second century, many Christians (particularly in the west) had already come to revere Sunday as the day of the Saviour&rsquos resurrection. This was the opening Constantine needed for uniting paganism and Christianity.

The Sunday law of Constantine must not be overrated. He enjoined the observance, or rather forbade the public desecration of Sunday, not under the name of Sabbatum [Sabbath] or dies Domini [Lord&rsquos day], but under its old astrological and heathen title, dies Solis [Sunday], familiar to all his subjects, so that the law was as applicable to the worshipers of Hercules, Apollo, and Mithras, as to the Christians. There is no reference whatever in his law either to the fourth commandment or to the resurrection of Christ. [9]

Constantine is viewed as a Christian because of his Sunday law but his &ldquoSunday law&rdquo was deliberately ambiguous. He wanted it to be acceptable to both pagans and Christians!

How such a law would further the designs of Constantine it is not difficult to discover. It would confer a special honor upon the festival of the Christian church, [10] and it would grant a slight boon to the pagans themselves. In fact there is nothing in this edict which might not have been written by a pagan. The law does honor to the pagan deity whom Constantine had adopted as his special patron god, Apollo or the Sun. The very name of the day lent itself to this ambiguity. The term Sunday (dies Solis) was in use among Christians as well as pagan. [11]

The seven-day planetary week was the vehicle for change. Both the eight-day Julian week and the seven-day Biblical week were laid aside for the planetary week of Mithraism. This week came from paganism,not the Bible as Christians today assume. &ldquoThe time was ripe for a reconciliation of state and church, each of which needed the other. It was a stroke of genius in Constantine to realize this and act upon it. He offered peace to the church, provided that she would recognize the state and support the imperial power.&rdquo [12]

Constantine&rsquos Sunday law did reconcile pagans and many of the Christians. However, it also served to bring to the forefront a controversy that had already raged for over 100 years: when to celebrate the Saviour&rsquos sacrifice. Up until this time, many Christians, especially in the east, were still worshipping on the seventh-day Sabbath as well as keeping the annual feasts of Yahuwah calculated by the Biblical luni-solar calendar. Even many who had embraced worship on Sunday still used the Biblical calendar for calculating Passover.

It was a longstanding debate involving two different calendars.

Since the second century A.D. there had been a divergence of opinion about the date for celebrating the paschal (Easter) anniversary of the Lord&rsquos passion (death, burial, and resurrection). The most ancient practice appears to have been to observe the fourteenth (the Passover date), fifteenth, and sixteenth days of the lunar month regardless of the day of the [Julian] week these dates might fall on from year to year. The bishops of Rome, desirous of enhancing the observance of Sunday as a church festival, ruled that the annual celebration should always be held on the Friday, Saturday, and Sunday following the fourteenth day of the lunar month. In Rome, Friday and Saturday of Easter were fast days, and on Sunday the fast was broken by partaking of the communion. This controversy lasted almost two centuries, until Constantine intervened in behalf of the Roman bishops and outlawed the other group. [13]

A statement by Eusebius of Caesarea reveals that the churches of Asia had long clung to observing Passover on Abib 14, while the churches in the west had transitioned to the pagan Easter Sunday:

A question of no small importance arose at that time [late second century] for the parishes of all Asia, as from an older tradition, held that the fourteenth day of the moon, on which day the Jews were commanded to sacrifice the lamb, should be observed as the feast of the Saviour&rsquos Passover. It was therefore necessary to end their fast on that day, whatever day of the [Julian] week it should happen to be. But it was not the custom of the churches in the rest of the world to end it at this time&hellip. [14]

The continuous weekly cycle of the Julian calendar meant that the Biblical Passover on Abib 14 could fall on any day of the Julian week. Consequently, Abib 16, the day of the resurrection, did not always fall on Sunday. Those pressing for an Easter celebration on the Julian calendar drew up a decree, proclaiming that all Christians should observe the resurrection on Easter Sunday, rather than the Passover of Abib 14. Thus, the observation of a pagan holiday ostensibly honoring Jesus&rsquo resurrection supplanted Yahuwah&rsquos feast commemorating Yahushua&rsquos death.

Synods and assemblies of bishops were held on this account, and all, with one consent, through mutual correspondence drew up an ecclesiastical decree, that the mystery of the resurrection of the Lord should be celebrated on no other but the Lord&rsquos day [Sunday], and that we should observe the close of the paschal fast on this day only. [15]

Those clinging to Biblical calendation immediately protested the highhanded decree of the western bishops. In a letter sent to Victor, Bishop of Rome, Polycrates declared his firm belief in continuing to use the Biblical calendar for observation of Passover. His letter is of particular importance to Christians today because it lists John the Beloved and the Apostle Phillip as keeping the Passover! Eusebius relates:

But the bishops of Asia, led by Polycrates, decided to hold to the old custom handed down to them. He himself, in a letter which he addressed to Victor and the church of Rome, set forth in the following words the tradition which had come down to him:

We observe the exact day neither adding, nor taking away. For in Asia also great lights have fallen asleep, which shall rise again on the day of the Lord&rsquos coming, when he shall come with glory from heaven, and shall seek out all the saints. Among these are Philip, one of the twelve apostles . . . and, moreover, John, who was both a witness and a teacher, who reclined upon the bosom of the Lord, and . . . fell asleep at Ephesus. And Polycarp in Smyrna, who was a bishop and martyr . . . All these observed the fourteenth day of the passover according to the Gospel, deviating in no respect, but following the rule of faith. [16]

If the believers in Asia were refusing to give up the Biblical calendar for calculating Passover, it is probable that they had likewise refused to forsake the true Sabbath calculated by the same calendar. The Bishop of Rome &ldquoimmediately attempted to cut off from the common unity the parishes of all Asia, with the churches that agreed with them as heterodox and he wrote letters and declared all the brethren there wholly excommunicate.&rdquo [17]

It is of import to note that there was never any argument over when the resurrection actually occurred. Both acknowledged that it occurred on Abib 16 of the luni-solar calendar. The disagreement, as noted in the quote above, was over when to celebrate it. Dates are established by calendars, so ultimately, it was an argument over which calendar would be used to determine the celebration. In order to truly unify Christians and pagans alike, the observance of the crucifixion and resurrection had to be transferred from the Biblical luni-solar calendar to the pagan, Julian solar calendar. Four years after the decrees exalting Sunday in 321 C.E., Constantine convened the Council of Nicea in 325 to settle this debate.

No longer would the Saviour&rsquos sacrifice be observed on the 14 th , 15 th and 16 th days of Abib on the luni-solar calendar. In the future, such remembrances would be transferred to the Friday, Saturday and Easter Sunday of the Julian calendar, which can drift from March 20-22 to April 22-25. The bishop of Rome, himself desirous of greater power and influence, threw the weight of his influence with Constantine. &ldquoBy the time of Constantine, apostasy in the church was ready for the aid of a friendly civil ruler to supply the wanting force of coercion.&rdquo [18]

Constantine was emphatic that Jewish calendation should no longer be used for calculating these dates.

At the Council of Nice [Nicea] the last thread was snapped which connected Christianity to its parent stock. The festival of Easter had up till now been celebrated for the most part at the same time as the Jewish Passover, and indeed upon the days calculated and fixed by the Synhedrion [Sanhedrin] in Judæa for its celebration but in future its observance was to be rendered altogether independent of the Jewish calendar, &ldquoFor it is unbecoming beyond measure that on this holiest of festivals we should follow the customs of the Jews. Henceforward let us have nothing in common with this odious people our Saviour has shown us another path. It would indeed be absurd if the Jews were able to boast that we are not in a position to celebrate the Passover without the aid of their rules (calculations).&rdquo These remarks are attributed to the Emperor Constantine . . . [and became] the guiding principle of the Church which was now to decide the fate of the Jews. [19]

Constantine accomplished three things, the ripple effects of which resound to this day:

1. Standardized the planetary week of seven days making dies Solis (Sunday) the first day of the week, with dies Saturni (Saturday) the last day of the week.

2. Exalted Easter and guaranteed that the true Passover and the pagan Easter would never fall on the same day.

3. Exalted dies Solis as the day of worship for both pagans and Christians.

The long-term effect was that &ldquoEaster Sunday&rdquo entered the Christian paradigm as The Day of Christ&rsquos resurrection. The corollary to this realignment of time calculation was that the day preceding Easter Sunday, Saturday, became forever after The True Bible Sabbath. This is the true significance of Constantine&rsquos &ldquoSunday law&rdquo and it laid the foundation for the modern assumption that a continuous weekly cycle has always existed. [20]

The result of Constantine&rsquos actions actually favored the pagan faction of the empire. However, the corrupt bishops of Rome were able to present these actions as favorable to Christians. &ldquoBy the time of Constantine, apostasy in the church was ready for the aid of a friendly civil ruler to supply the wanting force of coercion.&rdquo [21] The true luni-solar calendar, handed down from Creation and Moses, was lost.

Result

The result of Constantine&rsquos ecumenism was swiftly felt. All who refused to give up the use of the Biblical calendar for calculating Passover, felt the heavy hand of oppression fall on them. Constantine&rsquos son, Constantius, took his father&rsquos act one step further and outlawed the use of the Biblical calendar for Jews as well. Historian David Sidersky observed: &ldquoIt was no more possible under Constance to apply the old calendar.&rdquo [22]

In subsequent years, the Jews went through &ldquoiron and fire.&rdquo The Christian emperors forbade the Jewish computation of the calendar, and did not allow the announcement of the feast days. Graetz says, &ldquoThe Jewish communities were left in utter doubt concerning the most important religious decisions: as pertaining to their festivals.&rdquo The immediate consequence was the fixation and calculation of the Hebrew calendar by Hillel II. [23]

Constantius&rsquo act impacted apostolic Christians as well. While Tertullian [24] reveals paganized Christians were already transferring their worship to the &ldquoday of the Sun&rdquo as early as the second century, others clung to the true Sabbath for over 1,000 years. Almost 40 years after the Council of Nicea, the Council of Laodicea (c. 363-364) released a statement demanding that Christians work on the Sabbath and abstain from work on the Lord&rsquos day. This decree, translated into English, states:

Christians shall not Judaize and be idle on Saturday, but shall work on that day but the Lord&rsquos day they shall especially honor, and, as being Christians, shall, if possible, do no work on that day. If however, they are found Judaizing, they shall be shut out from Christ.

According to Roman Catholic bishop and scholar, Karl Josef von Hefele (1809-1893), the use of the word &ldquoSaturday&rdquo in the above quote is incorrect. In the original, the word used was Sabbath or Sabbato not dies Saturni or Saturday.

Quod non oportet Christianos Judaizere et otiare in Sabbato, sed operari in eodem die. Preferentes autem in veneratione Dominicum diem si vacre voluerint, ut Christiani hoc faciat quod si reperti fuerint Judaizere Anathema sint a Christo.

Christians at the time of the calendar change were not confused over Saturday being the Sabbath. Everyone knew that dies Saturni had recently been moved from the first day of the pagan, planetary week to the last day . . . while Sabbato was the seventh day of the Jewish luni-solar calendar with which no one in power wished to be associated. Again, these were two different days on two distinct calendar systems. [25]

The political power of Rome lent support to the religious decrees of Constantine and Constantius. While some scholars have mistakenly assumed that the conflict was over Saturday versus Sunday, the historical reality reveals that people of the time were well aware of the existence of the Biblical luni-solar calendar and how to use it. Many believers in the east or beyond the reaches of the Roman Empire were loathe to abandon Biblical time-keeping. &ldquoThose Christians who were looking for a way out of their difficulty with Sabbath observance moved towards a greater regard for the first day of the [Julian] week. But others on the outskirts of the Empire, where anti-Semitism did not exist, continued their veneration of the seventh day Sabbath.&rdquo [26]

REACTION

Hillel II

Just as Constantine was the power behind an action that ultimately led to the destruction of the Biblical calendar for use by Christians, another man, a Jew, was responsible for a reaction that had consequences just as far reaching.

&ldquoDeclaring the new month by observation of the new moon, and the new year by the arrival of spring, can only be done by the Sanhedrin. In the time of Hillel II, the last President of the Sanhedrin, the Romans prohibited this practice. Hillel II was therefore forced to institute his fixed calendar, thus in effect giving the Sanhedrin&rsquos advance approval to the calendars of all future years.&rdquo

"The Jewish Calendar and Holidays (incl. Sabbath): The Jewish Calendar: Changing the Calendar," http://www.torah.org.

Prior to the destruction of Jerusalem, the High Priest had been in charge of the calendar. &ldquoWhile the Sanhedrin (Rabbinical Supreme Court) presided in Jerusalem, there was no set calendar. They would evaluate every year to determine whether it should be declared a leap year.&rdquo [27] This task fell to the president of the Sanhedrin when the priesthood was no more. &ldquoUnder the reign of Constantius (337-362) the persecutions of the Jews reached such a height that . . . the computation of the calendar [was] forbidden under pain of severe punishment.&rdquo [28] It was as a reaction to this situation that Hillel II, President of the Sanhedrin, took the extraordinary step in 359 C.E. of modifying the ancient Biblical calendar to allow the Jews to more easily coexist with the Christians.

After Hillel II

Distant communities would no longer have to wait for messengers from the President of the Sandedrin to reach them to know when a new month had started. Each community would henceforth be able to determine for themselves when a new month began and when a 13 th month was to be added.

The &ldquoFixed&rdquo Calendar

When Hillel II &ldquofixed&rdquo the calendar, he incorporated leap years on a permanent basis. [29] It is possible, but not provable, that this particular cycle of leap years was used and understood prior to Hillel as it follows the 19-year metonic cycle. Hillel based his calendar &ldquoon mathematical and astronomical calculations [rather than observations]. This calendar, still in use, standardized the length of months and the addition of months over the course of a 19 year cycle, so that the lunar calendar realigns with the solar years.&rdquo [30] He declared a thirteenth month to be intercalated in the 3rd, 6th, 8th, 11th, 14th, 17th, and the 19th years of the 19-year cycle.

But Hillel did more than make known a 19-year cycle of intercalations that was, in all probability, used all along. He also transferred the observance of the ancient Sabbath from the 8 th , 15 th , 22 nd and 29 th days of the lunar month, to every Saturday of the Julian months. This change necessitated still another: rules of postponement. Changing the weekly Sabbath from the luni-solar calendar to Saturday is clearly implied by the need for rules of postponement which, prior to Hillel&rsquos &ldquofixing&rdquo of the calendar, had been unnecessary. According to the Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, &ldquoThe New Moon is still, and the Sabbath originally was, dependent upon the lunar cycle.&rdquo [31] When both the Sabbath and the annual feasts are calculated on the luni-solar calendar, rules of postponement are unnecessary. It is only when the yearly feasts are calculated by one calendar, and the weekly Sabbath is calculated by another, that there are conflicts requiring rules of postponement.

Rules of Postponement

1. The Jewish New Year, Feast of Trumpets, may not fall on Sunday, Wednesday or Friday.

2. If the New Moon (molad) for the seventh month falls on Sunday, Wednesday or Friday, the New Moon is postponed until the following day.

3. If the molad of the seventh month in a common year occurs on Tuesday at 3:204/1080 A.M. or later, the New Moon is postponed until Thursday.

Without the rules of postponement, the annual feasts come into conflict with Saturday. For example, if Feast of Trumpets (New Moon for the seventh month) were to fall on a Sunday, the last day of Feast of Tabernacles would fall on a Saturday, conflicting with the traditional observance for the last day of the feast. Hence the need for the first and second rules of postponement. The third rule of postponement insures that the common year in question would not be longer than 355 days. The fourth rule of postponement guarantees that a common year following a leap year is not shorter than 383 days. [32]

This &ldquofixed&rdquo calendar is highly regimented.

There are exactly fourteen different patterns that the Hebrew calendar years may take, distinguished by the length of the year and the day of the week on which Rosh Hashanah falls. Because the rules are complex, a pattern can repeat itself several times in the course of a few years, and then not recur again for a long time. But the Jewish calendar is known to be extremely accurate. It does not "lose" or "gain" time as some other calendars do. [33]

This was an act of survival by Hillel II. It was made in response to the brutal persecutions of Constantine&rsquos son, Constantius.

With his own hand the Patriarch destroyed the last bond which united the communities dispersed throughout the Roman and Persian empires with the Patriarchate. He was more concerned for the certainty of the continuance of Judaism than for the dignity of his own house, and therefore abandoned those functions for which his ancestors . . . had been so jealous and solicitous. The members of the Synhedrion favored this innovation. [34]

When Hillel II &ldquofixed&rdquo the calendar, he, in his position as President of the Sanhedrin, effectually gave permission to the Jews to worship on Saturday for all future time.

Today, nearly 1700 years later, the action of Constantine and its resulting reaction by Hillel II, are still impacting hundreds of millions of people around the world.

&bull Catholics worship on Sunday in honor of the resurrection. This is in accordance with the act of Constantine which changed the observance from a luni-solar calculated Passover to the pagan, solar calculated Easter.

&bull Jews worship on Saturday because Talmudic law justifies the act of keeping one day in seven when one does not know when the true Sabbath falls.

&bull Most Protestants join with Catholics in worshipping on Sunday, the first day of the modern, Gregorian week, assuming it is the day of the resurrection.

&bull Saturday-sabbath keeping Protestants worship on Saturday because it is the seventh-day of the modern week and they assume that since the Jews worship on Saturday, it must be the Biblical Sabbath.

&bull Muslims, likewise, honor the pagan/papal Gregorian method of calendation by going to mosque for prayers on Friday.

In his explanation of the Gregorian calendar, Clavius admitted that when the Julian calendar was accepted as the ecclesiastical calendar of the Church, the Biblical calendar was rejected: "The Catholic Church has never used that [Jewish] rite of celebrating the Passover, but always in its celebration has observed the motion of the moon [35] and sun, and it was thus sanctified by the most ancient and most holy Pontiffs of Rome, but also confirmed by the first Council of Nicaea." [36] The &ldquomost ancient and most holy Pontiffs of Rome&rdquo here spoken of refer to the pagan College of Pontiffs of which Constantine, as Pontifex Maximus, was the head.

Constantine desired unity. He achieved this goal through ecumenism and outlawing the use of the Biblical calendar for remembering the death of Yahushua. Hillel II desired the physical survival of Judaism. He achieved his goal by compromising with paganism and modifying the Biblical calendar. The result of this action and it&rsquos accompanying reaction has been the assumption by multitudes that Saturday is the Biblical Sabbath and Sunday is the day on which the Saviour was resurrected. Thus, Christians and Jews have calculated their worship days using pagan solar calendation, neglecting the true Sabbath of Yahuwah.

None who desire to worship the Creator on His holy Sabbath will calculate their worship days by this abomination of desolation that dishonors Yahuwah and desolates the soul. Only the luni-solar calendar of Creation can pinpoint when the true Sabbath occurs. Lay aside the traditions of man. Accept only the word of Yah and worship Him by His ordained method of time-keeping.


[1] This title, now claimed by the pope, comes from ancient Rome. The Pontifex Maximus was the high priest of the College of Pontiffs of the pagan Roman religion. It was both a religious as well as a political office.

[2] New Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. 4, pp. 179-181. Various inscriptions as recorded in Corpus Inseriptionum Latinarum, 1863 ed., Vol. 2, p. 58, #481 &ldquoConstantine I&rdquo, New Standard Encyclopedia, Vol. 5. See also Christopher B. Coleman, Constantine the Great and Christianity, p. 46.

[3] See Robert L. Odom, Sunday in Roman Paganism, &ldquoThe Planetary Week in the First Century B.C.&rdquo

[4] P. Brind'Amour, Le Calendrier romain: Recherches chronologiques, 256&ndash275.

[6] Eviatar Zerubavel, The Seven-day Circle, p. 46, emphasis supplied.

[7] Franz Cumont, Textes et Monumnets Figures Relatifs aux Mysteres de Mithra, Vol. I, p. 112, emphasis supplied.

[8] E. Diehl, Inscriptiones Latinae Christianae Veteres, Vol. 2, p. 193, No. 3391. See also J. B. de Rossi, Inscriptiones Christianac Urbis Romae, Vol. 1, part 1, p. 18, No. 11.

[9] Philip Schaff, History of the Christian Church, Vol. III, p. 380, emphasis supplied.

[10] By this time, the paganized Christians in the west had long been venerating Sunday as the day of Yahushua&rsquos resurrection.

[11] J. Westbury-Jones, Roman and Christian Imperialism, p. 210, emphasis supplied.

[12] Michael I. Rostovtzeff, The Social and Economic History of the Roman Empire, p. 456.

[13] Odom, op. cit., p. 188, emphasis supplied.

[14] Eusebius, Church History, Book V, Chapter 23, v. 1, emphasis supplied.

[16] Ibid., Chapter 24, v. 1-4, 6, emphasis supplied.

[18] Michael I. Rostovtzeff, The Social and Economic History of the Roman Empire, p. 456.

[19] Heinrich Graetz, History of the Jews, (Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1893), Vol. II, pp. 563-564, emphasis supplied.

[20] eLaine Vornholt & Laura Lee Vornholt-Jones, Calendar Fraud, &ldquoBiblical Calendar Outlawed,&rdquo emphasis supplied.

[21] Rostovtzeff, op. cit., p. 456.

[22] David Sidersky, Astronomical Origin of Jewish Chronology, p. 651, emphasis supplied.

[23] Grace Amadon, &ldquoReport of Committee on Historical Basis, Involvement, and Validity of the October 22, 1844, Position&rdquo, Part V, Sec. B, pp. 17-18, Box 7, Folder 1, Grace Amadon Collection, (Collection 154), Center for Adventist Research, Andrews University, Berrien Springs, Michigan.

[24] Tertullian,Apologia, chap. 16, in J. P. Migne, Patrologiæ Latinæ, Vol. 1, cols. 369-372 standard English translation in Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. 3, p. 31.

[25] Vornholt, op. cit., &ldquoChanging the Calendar: Papal Sign of Authority.&rdquo

[26] Leslie Hardinge, Ph.D., The Celtic Church in Britain, p. 76. Christians in Scotland continued to calculate Passover by the Biblical calendar until they got a Roman Catholic queen in the eleventh century.

[29] For an explanation of how the rabbinical calendar of Hillel II is calculated, see http://www.jewfaq.org/calendr2.htm.

[31] Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, "Holidays," p. 410.


ʿAbbāsid rule

Umayyad rule ended in 750. Along with Syria, Palestine became subject to ʿAbbāsid authority, based in Baghdad, and, like Syria, it did not readily submit to its new masters. Unlike the Umayyads, who leaned on the Yemeni (South Arabian) tribes, the ʿAbbāsids, in Syria, favoured and indeed used the Qays (North Arabian) tribes. Enmity between the two groups was, therefore, intensified and became an important political factor in Palestine. Pro-Umayyad uprisings were frequent and received Palestinian support. In 840/841 Abū Ḥarb, a Yemenite, unfurled the white banner of the Umayyads and succeeded in recruiting a large number of peasant followers, mainly among the Palestinian population, who regarded him as the saviour whose appearance was to save the land from the hated ʿAbbāsids. Though the insurrection was put down, unrest persisted.

The process of Islamization gained momentum under the ʿAbbāsids. ʿAbbāsid rulers encouraged the settlement and fortification of coastal Palestine so as to secure it against the Byzantine enemy. During the second half of the 9th century, however, signs of internal decay began to appear in the ʿAbbāsid empire. Petty states, and some indeed not so petty, emerged in different parts of the realm. One of the first to affect Palestine was the Tūlūnid dynasty (868–905) of Egypt, which marked the beginning of the disengagement of Egypt and, with it, of Syria and Palestine from ʿAbbāsid rule. During that period Palestine also experienced the destructive operations of the Qarmaṭians, an Ismāʿīlī Shīʿite sect that launched an insurrection in 903–906. After ʿAbbāsid authority was briefly restored, Palestine came under Ikhshīdid rule (935–969).


Is it possible to find out on what Roman day of the week Jesus resurrected? - History

The tomb Jesus was in was sealed with a large boulder. The boulder was moved to allow people who have blood in them to walk into the tomb. Jesus was transformed back into the body that Jesus had before he was born, even as were are born, when Jesus was resurrected. Jesus moved through the stone.

[…] sly detail in the Gospels, where they say the stone was rolled away, gives away ahistoricity? Nope. As scholar and archaeologist Urban C. von Wahlde has pointed out to the Biblical Archaeology magazine, the square-shaped stones would also have been rolled. […]

[…] How Was Jesus’ Tomb Sealed? — Examining the tomb of Jesus in light of Second Temple-period Jerusalem tombs […]

What about the rolling stone on mount Nebo?

In the Tomb with Jesus
by MARK WARD

A tomb made of solid rock wasn’t strong enough to keep Jesus—and neither is your sin.

Somehow the centuries managed to hide this tomb at Akeldama until quite recently. But at one time the tombs here were impossible to hide this was a burial place for elites, and elites build monuments to their names. The area you see pictured below was directly touched by people who directly touched the life of Jesus.

The tomb of Benei-Hezir on the Mount of Olives. A good example of spectacular monument tombs.

It takes real human touch to carve a tomb. The countless swings of a chisel that hewed the Akeldama tomb out of solid limestone left marks which can still be seen today. And every cubit of that rock had to be hauled out of the tomb, too. This means labor, and labor means money. The elites, at least, put real money into their burials. Wealthy people such as Joseph of Arimathea—and whoever owned the Tomb of the Shroud—gave thought and attention (and cash) to their future burials.

617 ἀνακυλίω, ἀποκυλίω [apokulio /ap·ok·oo·lee·o/] v. From 575 and 2947 GK 375 and 653 Four occurrences AV translates as “roll away” three times, and “roll back” once. 1 to roll off or away. Additional Information: This word is used in the Gospels to refer to the stone that was in front of the tomb of Jesus. In Palestine, graves were usually in a depression and the stone was rolled down an incline to cover the mouth of the tomb. For a small grave, about twenty men were required to roll a stone down hill to cover the door of the tomb. The Bible tells us that the stone covering the door of the tomb was a large stone. The women would have needed more men than even a full Roman guard of sixteen men to roll away the stone. This was a major task. Joseph of Aramethia was a “rich man” tomb was among the rich, not ordinary people. Irresponsible reporting on your part..Tombs has a track in which the stone could be rolled. The diameter fitted with the stone to roll

Strong, J. (1995). Enhanced Strong’s Lexicon. Woodside Bible Fellowship.

Another thing I thought about. I’m no legal scholar, but I would assume that the purpose of Res Judicata would be to save the courts (finite) time. Given that we are supposing an infinite number of universes, wo8d7n&#u21lt that also presuppose an infinite number of courts, and thus an infinite amount of time to try these cases?

To roll a “great stone” into place, it must be either round in some way, or very exactly positioned previously so as to end up fitting just right on the final flip. A plug/square rock must come off its rollers before the final fitting if it ever had such – more likely to have been cut in-situ, and finally pushed into place by manpower sliding it.. A “cork” rock will obviously jam on top if rolled in or out: therefore the 4 gospels unanimous mention of “rolling” gives us no reason at all to doubt some form of “round” “great stone”. The clear Biblical mention in prophecy of “buried with the rich” seals the case conclusively.

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The prophet Isaiah tells us that Jesus was buried with the rich in His death. Isa 53:9 And He appointed Him His grave with the wicked, but He was with a rich man in His death though He had done no violence, and deceit was not in His mouth
It is plain from the Tanaach that Joseph of Arimithea was a rich person as Mathew also bears witness too in Matthew 27:57. Mark 15:43 tells us that Joseph was a honourable councillor . This man had wealth, and honour and position. He was no ordinary man. The stone over the tomb of Jesus the Christ may well have been a round stone

This proves another scandal by the Romans & the Greeks, this was done to support two beliefs that dispute that Yeshua HaMashiach rose from the dead. One to prove the common belief among Jews even today that the Disciples bought some soldiers to roll away the stones and steal his body lie that Yeshua rose from the dead, how, because the stone could be easily rolled away, as long as it was a round disk stone(representing the sun). The second belief is that the Pagan Religions which have been in existence for over two thousand years, which promotes the worship of sun gods, reduces the death and resurrection of Yeshua to nothing but a daylight robbery, because most of the Roman & Greek gods were buried in this way, by sealing them with round disk stones(representing the sun), to seal their fate as sun gods, who are made to disappear and become some mystic gods, thus they deny the uniqueness of Yeshua’s resurrection as anything different to their Babylonian gods

I don’t see a comment that recognizes that Joseph of Aramathea was indeed the Blood brother of Jesus Mother Mary. He was also a member of the Sanhedrin as well as a follower of Christ (secretly from the other Jews). Jesus would have made many trips abroad with Joseph as there is no mention of Joseph ( Christ’s Father) after a while. Joseph of AR. was a tin merchant with many mines and properties up and down the coast. Christ would have had opportunity to study very young at some of the finest learning institutions of the day. So my point being This was a new tomb of the very wealthy Joseph so reasonable to assume the newest and finest. Also Jesus Daddy Joseph was not poor. The verse about them sleeing at the stable was not because he could afford nothing else, Have any of you ever traveled with a pregnant woman? By the time they got close for the Feast of Tabernacles they were already getting to sundown and had to bed down quick before sunset. So Christ would have been born on the first day of the Feast of Tabernacles and circumcised On the Last Great Day.

Reading this on the rolling of the stone I am amazed at the stupidity of the arguments made. Lets change the meaning of the word! how about we think of these people where they came from and think from their point of view. what did they do in Egypt ?? For how long did they role square stones around in slavery ? It would be easier to place round objects under a square stone thus (role) it along. This was common knowledge for them so why would they spell it out for our ignorance two thousand years later. This was daily life for them.

Much ado about nothing. Romans never took down crucified remains for burial. They were left hanging as reminders too others. These events were fabricated by others as a false narrative to keep section relevant.

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Many large and heavy things are moved on rollers but are not round. This is a silly debate.

I believe the son of God had a special tomb, then again they did not want the stone to be easily moved. You might ask how many “flips” constitute a “role”. Mary was obviously upset and she may not have used the correct technical term.

John 20:11-15 The woman stooped down and was able to look inside the cave-tomb. The entrance was probably at least 3 feet high, with a groove of at least 1 ½ – 2 feet in depth, of sufficient width to allow a man to safely turn about in it without falling down. The platform and floor of the cave had to drop another 3-5 feet below the elevation where the woman was standing, and be back into the cave some 8-10 feet. In all likelihood, there were finger mausoleums — which were also cut into the back of the cave, curving out of sight, even from the light of the angelic radiance. Because of its proximity to the tomb of King David, and its being on the Mount of Olives, this newly hewn out rock-cave tomb was a very expensive purchase and stone cutting project, and speaks of immense wealth. Whoever owned this cave was not only rich, he was almost like a government treasury unto himself. Perhaps more so than the rich young man of Matthew 20:16-22. The context of the rolling back of the stone appears to be that it was done so forcefully, that the great rock was out of its groove, and tossed a short way up and behind the tomb entrance, yet still over the cave’s perspective.
The location of the tomb is north of En Rogel and south of the Azal fissure on Mt. Olivet, and likely still remains unmolested. Many Old Testament prophecy passages (as well as having Gematriac confirmations) demonstrate the resurrection tomb was EASTWARD from the Temple mount. For example,
“And the glory of YHVeH went up in the midst of the city,
and stood (as though erected or propped up)
upon the mountain eastward of the city.” (Ezekiel 11:23)

In the Hebrew of the above verse, the Hebrew for “went up” is VeYaAhL (Vav-Yod-Ayin-Lamed), “alah” in the Qal imperfect. Comparison of “alah” in the phonetic should also be made (Alef-Lamed-He and Ayin-Lamed-He). In the Tanakh (Old Testament), alah is often translated as “that which is brought up”, and as “that which is offered up”. The idea conveyed here, is not just that which merely “ascends” or “goes up from” but “that which is being led away from.” It is a word picture prophesying of Christ being led away to the crucifixion. The Greek equivalent is “ago’, from which root word “angel” is derived. It is a picking up, of carrying away, and of coming, going, or leading away. That “leading away” in “Alah” is the same experience that Jesus (called Yeshua in the Hebrew) experienced personally, in fulfillment of this prophecy, when He was led away from the midst of the city.
“eastward of the city” (Ezekiel 11:23).

This verse is so important in prophecy, that in Ezekiel 43:1-7, we see how that Tawech (Tav-Vav-Kaf] is reinforced so that it clearly defines how that the entire Temple Mount area, including that which would later become known as “Gabbatha”. Again, “Gabbatha” was that “midst of the city” from which “the Glory of YHVeH” was “led away from.” Tawech is a derivative from a Hebrew root word that means, “to sever”. And, indeed, “after 62 weeks…Messiah the Prince…(was) cut off [severed], but not for Himself”(Daniel 9:23). So, even in Ezekiel, we have a prophecy signifying the manner in which Messiah must die consistent with that of Jesus Christ: as being led away (and rejected out of Jerusalem), then lifted up and killed (in a propped up manner such as a crucifixion).

When the glory of YHVeH “stood” upon the mountain, eastward of the city, the word used here for “stood” in the Hebrew is VaYAMaD (Vav-Yod-Ayin-Mem-Dalet). This word not only means “to stand”, but is also inclusive of “that which is propped up” or “erected”, such as the Cross. Even as the Cross was erected and stood up, being propped by means of a rope and pulley system, so too, does the prophecy point to a “suspension” or SeLaH of GOD’s Glory to the East of the Temple, and in relationship to the Siloam Gate (which is far to long to post in comments here).
In getting to this location, we find that the Kidron torrent river was flowing in John 18:2.
Twice, on the night prior to the Crucifixion, Christ and others crossed this flowing (flash flood runoff) river. That means: that there were at least two wooded bridges that specifically crossed the Kidron from Mt. Moriah to Mt. Olivet in Jerusalem in A.D. 30:
1) in the northeast area by the Temple spanning Olivet to Moriah and
2) one to the south, spanning Olivet to the Lower city near the Gate of Siloam.

This latter point requires a road leading north on the westward side of Olivet from En Rogel to this bridge. Christ, upon being cast out of Jerusalem, was denied access of the lower city bridge, and likely had to wade through its frigid running torrent on the early morning when he was arrested and led back to the Temple Mount.(cf. 2 Kings 6:6 as prophetic). In 2 Kings 23:13, the Mount of Olives is viewed in the context of a northern and southern mount, or a double peaked mount, as it were. Modern geographers will designate this Mount of Olives with 4 peaks. The southern aspect of this mount is known as Lehar HaMaschiyith , the “hill of destruction” or the “destroying mountain”. While some uses of Maschiyith mean “to pull down” (e.g. Genesis 13:10, and Ezekiel 26:4) it is also translated as “to wound” in Exodus 21:26. Both of these carry Messianic implications: “the pulling down of strongholds” via the Cross, to which Paul alludes to in 2 Corinthians 10:4 and being “wounded for our transgressions” in Isaiah 53:5. Even the bruising of the head, while having His heel bruised in turn, in Genesis 3:15, can be experienced through the Cross in prophecy and Gematria at this location.

The tomb of “the rich man” is in this general location, at the westward base of this 4th peak of Mt. Olivet for in relation to the Tomb, we see the prophecy of Isaiah, which states:
“[GOD] Who raised the Righteous (One) from the East,
called Him to His foot.” (Isaiah 41:2a)

That is “resurrected the Righteous One from the Eastern hill of Olivet”, and from this direction, GOD the Father “called Him up in the clouds to Heaven” — Acts 1:9,11.

It may be that the Scriptures have the exact dimensions of the stone that rolled away in prophecy, but until one day when it is revealed, either in this life or the eternal to come, we may have to simply agree as to that question we just don’t know the answer yet. However, scholars SHOULD have known all along that they were looking for Christ’s tomb in the WRONG PLACE by looking north instead of East.

We are given an overwhelming amount of internal Biblical Evidence that places the Cross and the Tomb in this location South and East of the Temple. So why has this information been ignored, and why hasn’t this area been excavated as of yet? Because, as Paul points out, even when that which is known of GOD is made clear and apparent, men will prefer to hold an alternate version or slant upon the truth, to follow after the lusts of the vanity of their imaginations — that they may be void of GOD in them (cf. Romans 1:18-23). And as Messiah puts it, “men loved darkness rather than light, because their deeds were evil”(John 3:19 – KJV).

Surely the differences relate to the time when the gospels were written? I don’t think that Luke ever went to Jerusalem anyway, even if he was the actual writer. It might have been (and probably was) written by a scribe. Similarly with Luke, although Matthew might have been a scribe.
Denn

I see that Jesus’ Tomb was one of the four tombs with disk-shaped blocking stones that belonged to the wealthy families of Jerusalem because, according to all four canonical Gospels, Joseph of Arimathea (who was rich) was the man who donated his own prepared tomb for the burial of Jesus after Jesus’ crucifixion.
There is no contradiction between the archeological findings and definitions of Jesus’ Tomb in the Gospels.

Four gospels are clearly mentioned about Jesus birth,his work and culture and history of that particular period. They did not give much important on days months or years to which it happened. They always pointed on divinity of Jesus.It is not required to what types of stone or which day he crucified.

Everyone who moves stone blocks “ROLLS” them on rollers as far as possible. Only the final positioning of the stone was without rollers. It would be normal for people to refer to moving the stone blocks as rolling them into place.

A Vital Date in Bible History Nisan 14, (2015 this occur Friday, April 3 after sunset.)
The date on which Abram crossed the Euphrates River is important in Bible chronology. Other key events transpired on that date in later years. Exactly 430 years later, on Nisan 14, 1513 B.C.E., Jehovah freed Israel from bondage to Egypt so that they could go and claim the land that God had promised to Abram. (Ex. 12:40, 41 Gal. 3:17) And on that same date in 33 C.E., Jesus gathered his apostles together and established with them a covenant that made them part of a government in heaven that will soon solve all mankind’s ills. (Luke 22:29) To this day, the Christians gather each year to commemorate the Lord’s Evening Meal on the same date of the Jewish calendar—Nisan 14.—Luke 22:19.

Should Jesus’ death be commemorated monthly, weekly, or even daily? No. Jesus instituted the Lord’s Evening Meal and was killed on the day of Passover, which was observed “as a memorial” of Israel’s deliverance from Egyptian bondage in 1513 B.C.E. (Exodus 12:14) The Passover was held only once a year, on the 14th day of the Jewish month Nisan. (Exodus 12:1-6 Leviticus 23:5) This indicates that Jesus’ death should be commemorated only as often as the Passover—annually—not monthly, weekly, or daily.
So, then, it is appropriate to observe the Memorial annually on Nisan 14. Says one reference work: “The Christians of Asia Minor were called Quartodecimans [Fourteenthers] from their custom of celebrating the pascha [Lord’s Evening Meal] invariably on the 14th of Nisan . . . The date might fall on Friday or on any of the other days of the week.”—The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, Volume IV, page 44.
Commenting concerning the second century C.E. practice, historian J. L. von Mosheim says that the Quartodecimans observed the Memorial on Nisan 14 because “they considered the example of Christ as possessing the force of a law.” Another historian states: “The usage of the Quartodeciman churches of Asia was continuous with that of the Jerusalem church. In the 2nd century these churches at their Pascha on the 14th of Nisan commemorated the redemption effected by the death of Christ.”—Studia Patristica, Volume V, 1962, page 8.
http://wol.jw.org/en/wol/d/r1/lp-e/1200274126

Matthew 27:60 – And laid it in his own new tomb, which he had hewn out in the rock and he rolled a great stone to the door of the sepulchre, and departed.
Matthew 28:2 – And behold, there was a great earthquake: for the angel of the Lord descended from heaven, and came and rolled back the stone from the door, and sat on it.
Mark 15:46 – And he bought fine linen, and took him down, and rapped him in the linen, and laid him in a sepulchre, which was hewn out of a rock, and rolled a stone unto the door of the sepulchre.
Mark 16:3-4 – And they said among themselves, Who shall roll us away the stone from the door of the sepulchre? And when they looked, they saw that the stone was rolled away: for it was very great.
Luke24:2 – And they found the stone rolled away from the sepulchre.

Isn’t it amazing that there are still so many who are seeking fame and fortune, while actually misleading readers? BAS has never given Ron Wyatt the credit for his discoveries, but will always try to give credit to those who are in fact either trying to prove him wrong, or rediscover what he has already discovered years ago! The site of Mt. Sinai, the Red Sea crossing, Noah’s Ark, & Sodom, to name but a few.

Ever since I was a kid I have always wondered how a round block of stone could have stayed in place and . I don’t have to wonder anymore.

Nevermind what the manuscripts say, I have a theory and want some name recognition.


Eternal crustaceans

If you ever find yourself at Red Lobster or about to munch into a lobster roll, take a moment to consider that you might just be eating a clue to perpetual youth. To see why, we have to know a tiny bit about aging.

As you get older, it's impossible not to notice how everything creaks a little more, how easy jobs now require great effort, and how hangovers are no longer a laughing matter. Our bodies are designed to degrade and wear away. This deterioration, known as "senescence" in biology, occurs at the cellular level. It's when the cells in our body stop dividing, yet remain in our body, active and alive. We need our cells to divide so that we can grow and repair. For instance, when we cut ourselves or lift weights in the gym, it is cell division that replaces and rebuilds the damage done. But, over time, our cells just stop dividing. They stay around to do the best they can, but like the macroscopic humans they make up, cells get slower and more error-prone — and so, we age.

The Fountain of Youth (1546)Credit: Lucas Cranach the Elder via Wikipedia / Public domain

But not lobsters. In normal cases of cell division, the shields at the end of our chromosomes — called telomeres — are remade a bit smaller, and so a bit less effective after each subsequent cell division at protecting our DNA. When this reaches a certain point, the cell enters senescence and will stop dividing. It won't self-destruct but will just carry on and wallow as it is. Lobsters, though, have a special enzyme (unsurprisingly, called telomerase) which makes sure that their cells' telomeres remain as long and brilliant as they've always been. Their cells will never enter senescence, and so a lobster just won't age.

However, what evolution giveth with one hand, it taketh with another. As crustaceans, their skeleton is on the outside, and having a constantly growing body means they are always outgrowing their exoskeletal homes. They need to abandon their old shells and regrow a new one all the time. This, of course, requires huge reserves of energy, and as the lobster reaches a certain size, it simply cannot consume enough calories to build the shell equivalent of a mansion. Lobsters do not die from old age but exhaustion (as well as disease and New England fisherman).


Jesus Never Said ‘Blessed Are the Self-Promoters’

In one of the first—and most important—messages Jesus ever delivered, He did something that helped to set the tone for His entire ministry: He challenged a paradigm.

To open His Sermon on the Mount in Matthew 5, Jesus outlined eight specific groups of people who He called “blessed.”

But before you dig into what He taught, some context is important. Jesus began teaching during a tumultuous time for His people. Israel was occupied by the Roman empire. Violence was common. Political and religious leaders regularly called for harsh punishments for anyone who ran afoul of their authority (remember the woman caught in adultery who Jesus saved from being stoned?)

People were looking for a savior who was powerful. But, like today, many were looking toward an idea of power that Jesus came to stand against.

For centuries, those who have held the highest offices and wielded the most cultural influence were the ones capable of the strongest rhetoric. They held the most wealth and carried themselves with the most pride. Power, fame and social stature have always been directly associated with strength, wealth and influence.

Challenging this idea is how Jesus chose to begin His career as a teacher.

As the crowds gathered, He said,

“Blessed are the poor in spirit,
for theirs is the Kingdom of heaven.

Blessed are those who mourn,
for they will be comforted.

Blessed are the meek,
for they will inherit the earth.

Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness,
for they will be filled.

Blessed are the merciful,
for they will be shown mercy.

Blessed are the pure in heart,
for they will see God.

Blessed are the peacemakers,
for they will be called children of God.

Blessed are those who are persecuted because of righteousness,
for theirs is the Kingdom of heaven.

Even today, this is a radical message.

Compare this to a presidential campaign ad or how a leader is marketed today. We’re taught that the most desirable leaders are the ones who are strong. Those who are vindictive against our enemies. Who are eloquent and sharp. Who aren’t afraid of a fight.

Meekness, mercy, brokenness (“those who mourn”), being a victim (or “persecuted because of righteousness”), and, in some cases, even peacemaking, are seen as liabilities—but Jesus saw them as the ultimate virtues.

And this is why Jesus’ opening words in His Sermon are still so jarring: They challenge how we think about character, success and purpose.

It’s not just at high levels of government office or in business leadership. The deception of humanity is that fame, wealth, strength, popularity, praise and accomplishments are how we should measure our own success and self-worth.

Where We Go Wrong In Finding Acceptance

Being ‘Like God’

Human nature is to want what belongs to God. Even in the Garden of Eden, Satan tempted Adam and Eve with the promise that if they ate the fruit from the Tree of Knowledge, they would “be like God.”

In a culture where the value of statements we make are literally measured in the amount of “likes” they receive—where how many “followers” we have is a sign of our notoriety and where celebrities are worshipped—it’s easy to forget that Jesus praised the meek, the insulted, the righteous, the grieving and poor in spirit. Culture has created platforms where we are encouraged to make our voices known, to build our own brands and draw attention to ourselves. Especially in the age of social media, outrage sells.

But Jesus wanted people to know that society has it all backward.

None of those things are inherently wrong in and of themselves, but when they become our focus, the kingdoms we end up building ultimately won’t last.

It’s a message the Church can’t forget.

Getting caught up in the rhetoric of culture wars—“defending” our faith—can make us forget that Jesus is looking for peacemakers. Being overly concerned with the things we think will make us happy can distract us from what Jesus said about the poor in spirit. Becoming obsessed with receiving recognition and praise doesn’t foster the meekness Jesus said He was after. Building our own kingdoms—of followers, churches, bank accounts—can distract us from building His.

Jesus concludes His Beatitudes by saying this: “Blessed are you when people insult you, persecute you and falsely say all kinds of evil against you because of me. Rejoice and be glad, because great is your reward in heaven, for in the same way they persecuted the prophets who were before you.”

A Greater Reward

Jesus knew persecution was coming.

And yes, there are Christians who still face literal, unimaginable persecution every day for their faith. But opposition to these ideas doesn’t always take the form of physical threats of violence (especially for Christians fortunate enough to live in places that allow them to worship freely). Jesus understood that people will “falsely say all kinds of evil against you” and “insult you” because by living by His commands, we’re challenging a value system many people have based their entire lives on.

It’s completely disruptive to the way we are taught to understand this world—because in the end, it’s about pointing people to a Kingdom that will never pass away.

Jesse Carey is a mainstay on the weekly RELEVANT Podcast and member of RELEVANT's executive board. He lives in Virginia Beach with his wife and two kids.


The Miraculous Story Behind the Discovery of the True Cross of Jesus

September 14th is the feast day of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross, also known as the Triumph of the Cross or the Elevation of the Cross. This is the day the Church celebrates both the discovery and the recovery of the True Cross of Jesus Christ.

Read below for the very interesting historical account surrounding this ancient feast day.

ST. HELENA’S DISCOVERY IN JERUSALEM

The Roman Emperor Constantine’s mother, St. Helena, a convert to Christianity, went on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land to locate where the important events in the life of Jesus Christ occurred, and to preserve the relics of the Christian faith that remained there. One of her goals was to find the place of Jesus’ crucifixion and the very Cross on which he was hung.

Through interviewing many locals, and with the assistance of the Bishop of Jerusalem, St. Macarius, she discovered the spot and found the True Cross which had been previously hidden by the Jews.

According to the historian Rufinus, the identity of the True Cross was confirmed by a miraculous healing after St. Macarius recited this prayer:

“O Lord, who by the Passion of Thine only Son on the cross, didst deign to restore salvation to mankind, and who even now hast inspired thy handmaid Helena to seek for the blessed wood to which the author of our salvation was nailed, show clearly which it was, among the three crosses, that was raised for Thy glory. Distinguish it from those which only served for a common execution. Let this woman who is now expiring return from death’s door as soon as she is touched by the wood of salvation.”

The date of this discovery and miracle, according to tradition, was May 3rd, 326 A.D. St. Helena had a church built on the original site of Jesus’ crucifixion, burial, and resurrection, known as the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Her son Constantine dedicated this church on September 13-14 in the year 335 A.D. Even today, the Stations of the Cross in Jerusalem, or the Via Dolorosa, end at this very spot.

THE FEAST DAY

The True Cross was considered a most valuable treasure of the Church and became a highly venerated object, and the feast honoring the Elevation of the Holy Cross has continually been celebrated until this day. It is celebrated on May 3rd on the old Roman calendar (the date of its discovery), and on September 14th in Jerusalem and on the new Roman calendar (the date the church was dedicated).

THE TRUE CROSS IS STOLEN

The Cross of Christ was kept by the Church in Jerusalem, but was absconded by Chosroas, King of the Persians, in the year 614 A.D. after the Persian invasion of Syria and Palestine. In the year 629 A.D. the Cross was recovered and brought back to Jerusalem by Emperor Heraclius of Constantinople. The relic of the True Cross was then restored to its place in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.

The date the True Cross was brought back to Jerusalem was September 14th! The anniversary of the dedication of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, the date on which Jerusalem celebrated the feast of the Triumph of the Holy Cross.

Tradition has it that Emperor Heraclius carried the Cross on his back, a public act of homage, in order to restore it to its rightful place but, he was only able to move it after he had removed his royal garments and put on the humble garments of repentance instead.

TIMELINE OF EVENTS

326 A.D.: St. Helena discovers the True Cross in Jerusalem on May 3rd.

335 A.D.: Constantine dedicates the Church of the Holy Sepulcher on September 14th.

614 A.D.: Jerusalem is invaded by the Persians who steal the True Cross.

629 A.D.: The True Cross is recovered and brought back to Jerusalem on September 14th.

VENERATING THE CROSS

The Church has a long tradition of venerating the Cross, that’s why Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches always have large crucifixes in prominent places. In the Catholic Church venerating the Cross is a liturgical tradition during Holy Week.

It’s also why Catholic Christians and Eastern Christians keep crosses and crucifixes in their homes, usually on their wall or above their doorway. In fact, a cross or a crucifix put in a place of honor is a sure mark of a Christian home.

If you don’t have a cross or a crucifix in your home, consider choosing one on this special feast day, have it blessed, and place it in a prominent place in your home where it will be honored and venerated.

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How Can We Be Sure that Saturday is the Seventh Day?

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How Can We Be Sure that Saturday is the Seventh Day?

Calendars printed in the United States put Saturday as the seventh day, but in Europe and other places in the world, Sunday is shown as the seventh day. So how can we be sure?

The seven-day weekly cycle is not tied to any patterns or alignments of the sun, moon or stars. It’s a non-stop serial counting of days, one after the other. Scripture tells us the cycle was established by God. After six days of creation, God rested on the seventh day (Genesis 2:1-2 Genesis 2:1-2 [1] Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host of them. [2] And on the seventh day God ended his work which he had made and he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had made.
American King James Version× ). Since then, the counting off of days in groups of sevens—with each group called a week and every seventh day designated as a day of rest—has continued unbroken up to our own time.

English-speaking countries call the seventh day Saturday, but the word for that day in many languages indicates its origins as the biblical day of rest. For example, the seventh day in Spanish is called Sabado (coming from the Hebrew shabbat). This too is made plain on printed calendars in those languages.

[Infographic] Names for Saturday in Many Languages Prove Which Day Is the True Sabbath
Which day of the week is the biblical Sabbath? It is clear from the names for the seventh day of the week, Saturday, in many languages.

Could we have lost our place?

If you have ever tried to count off numbers in a sequence you know how easy it is to lose your place. Could this have happened with the counting of the seventh day? After all, it's been a very long time since God established the first day of rest.

If the sequence had gotten all jumbled up sometime between the first day of rest and the Exodus of Israel out of Egypt, the true seventh day was clearly reestablished by the time the Ten Commandments were given.

We can conclude confidently that our current Saturday is the seventh day of the week, on the same weekly cycle that has been in place since the beginning of creation—a cycle established and confirmed by God Himself.

In the wilderness, God fed the people of Israel with manna. The manna would appear on the ground every day except the seventh day, the day of rest (Exodus 16:14-30 Exodus 16:14-30 [14] And when the dew that lay was gone up, behold, on the face of the wilderness there lay a small round thing, as small as the hoar frost on the ground. [15] And when the children of Israel saw it, they said one to another, It is manna: for they knew not what it was. And Moses said to them, This is the bread which the LORD has given you to eat. [16] This is the thing which the LORD has commanded, Gather of it every man according to his eating, an omer for every man, according to the number of your persons take you every man for them which are in his tents. [17] And the children of Israel did so, and gathered, some more, some less. [18] And when they did mete it with an omer, he that gathered much had nothing over, and he that gathered little had no lack they gathered every man according to his eating. [19] And Moses said, Let no man leave of it till the morning. [20] Notwithstanding they listened not to Moses but some of them left of it until the morning, and it bred worms, and stank: and Moses was wroth with them. [21] And they gathered it every morning, every man according to his eating: and when the sun waxed hot, it melted. [22] And it came to pass, that on the sixth day they gathered twice as much bread, two omers for one man: and all the rulers of the congregation came and told Moses. [23] And he said to them, This is that which the LORD has said, To morrow is the rest of the holy sabbath to the LORD: bake that which you will bake to day, and seethe that you will seethe and that which remains over lay up for you to be kept until the morning. [24] And they laid it up till the morning, as Moses bade: and it did not stink, neither was there any worm therein. [25] And Moses said, Eat that to day for to day is a sabbath to the LORD: to day you shall not find it in the field. [26] Six days you shall gather it but on the seventh day, which is the sabbath, in it there shall be none. [27] And it came to pass, that there went out some of the people on the seventh day for to gather, and they found none. [28] And the LORD said to Moses, How long refuse you to keep my commandments and my laws? [29] See, for that the LORD has given you the sabbath, therefore he gives you on the sixth day the bread of two days abide you every man in his place, let no man go out of his place on the seventh day. [30] So the people rested on the seventh day.
American King James Version× ). This sequence would repeat every seven days, over and over for 40 years. The weekly cycle of manna only stopped when Israel entered the promised land. Four decades of repetition is plenty of time to clearly establish which day was the day of rest.

If the Sabbath had somehow been lost between creation and the exodus, 40 years of weekly miracles would have definitely reestablished it.

Did Israel ever lose track of the seventh day?

The Exodus was still a very long time in the past. Plus Israel went through many periods of turmoil, forgetfulness of God, invasion, deportation, etc. Could Israel—and later the Jewish people—have mixed up the sequence of counting the seven-day weekly cycle through all that?

Jesus Christ, the very Word of God, put off the glory He shared with the Father and was born a flesh and blood human being. He was the “Lord of the Sabbath” (Matthew 12:1-8 Matthew 12:1-8 [1] At that time Jesus went on the sabbath day through the corn and his disciples were an hungered, and began to pluck the ears of corn and to eat. [2] But when the Pharisees saw it, they said to him, Behold, your disciples do that which is not lawful to do on the sabbath day. [3] But he said to them, Have you not read what David did, when he was an hungered, and they that were with him [4] How he entered into the house of God, and did eat the show bread, which was not lawful for him to eat, neither for them which were with him, but only for the priests? [5] Or have you not read in the law, how that on the sabbath days the priests in the temple profane the sabbath, and are blameless? [6] But I say to you, That in this place is one greater than the temple. [7] But if you had known what this means, I will have mercy, and not sacrifice, you would not have condemned the guiltless. [8] For the Son of man is Lord even of the sabbath day.
American King James Version× Mark 2:23-28 Mark 2:23-28 [23] And it came to pass, that he went through the corn fields on the sabbath day and his disciples began, as they went, to pluck the ears of corn. [24] And the Pharisees said to him, Behold, why do they on the sabbath day that which is not lawful? [25] And he said to them, Have you never read what David did, when he had need, and was an hungered, he, and they that were with him? [26] How he went into the house of God in the days of Abiathar the high priest, and did eat the show bread, which is not lawful to eat but for the priests, and gave also to them which were with him? [27] And he said to them, The sabbath was made for man, and not man for the sabbath: [28] Therefore the Son of man is Lord also of the sabbath.
American King James Version× Luke 6:1-5 Luke 6:1-5 [1] And it came to pass on the second sabbath after the first, that he went through the corn fields and his disciples plucked the ears of corn, and did eat, rubbing them in their hands. [2] And certain of the Pharisees said to them, Why do you that which is not lawful to do on the sabbath days? [3] And Jesus answering them said, Have you not read so much as this, what David did, when himself was an hungered, and they which were with him [4] How he went into the house of God, and did take and eat the show bread, and gave also to them that were with him which it is not lawful to eat but for the priests alone? [5] And he said to them, That the Son of man is Lord also of the sabbath.
American King James Version× ). Jesus would have known if He, or His fellow Jews, had the sequence of the seventh day messed up.

The record of Jesus’ life shows He rested on the seventh day in obedience to the commandment (John 15:10 John 15:10 If you keep my commandments, you shall abide in my love even as I have kept my Father's commandments, and abide in his love.
American King James Version× ). Jesus observed the day of rest on the same day of the week as His fellow Jews. The religious authorities of the day may have disputed what types of activities were appropriate for observing the seventh day as a day of rest, but not which day of the week it was.

Jesus' obedience to the Fourth Commandment confirmed the seventh day as kept by the Jews was the correct day.

Did the Jewish people lose track of the seventh day after Jesus’ death?

Years before the time of Jesus’ death, and in the centuries since, the Jewish people have been widely dispersed throughout the Middle East and Europe. Wherever they have gone, they have fiercely guarded the observance of the seven-day weekly cycle so they might never break the Fourth Commandment.

It's possible to consider that isolated pockets of Jews may have lost track of the weekly cycle due to some local turmoil, but such an error would have quickly been corrected by comparing notes with the many other Jewish communities in other countries and continents—communities which had not experienced any interruption or disruption in the seven-day weekly cycle.

However, there isn’t any historical record of any dispute among any Jewish groups that the day we call Saturday is the seventh day of the weekly cycle, God’s day of rest. The Jewish people have successfully kept the original seven-day weekly cycle intact.

Now, one last question that sometimes comes up:

Did the change to the Gregorian calendar in 1582 lose track of the seventh day?

From 46 B.C. up to A.D. 1582, the Western world used what is called the Julian calendar. It was a vast improvement over the previous Roman calendars because it finally kept the months in sync with the seasons. However, after many centuries even the Julian calendar was about 10 days out of sync with the solar system.

In 1582 the old Julian calendar was replaced with the new, improved Gregorian calendar, which is the calendar system we still use today. At the time of the change to the new calendar system, those 10 days were simply dropped out of the calendar to get the dating system of the calendar back in sync with the solar system. It was Thursday, Oct. 4, 1582, and the next day, Friday, should have been Oct. 5. However, the new calendar made the next day Oct. 15 instead.

That change had no impact on the seven-day weekly cycle. Whether that following Friday was numbered as the 5th of the month or the 15th of the month, it was still the sixth day of the week, and the day that followed was still the seventh day of the week.

Even today we regularly add a day into our calendar every four years. We call it a “leap year.” Changing the number of days in a calendar month does not alter the weekly cycle—there is no six-day week, or eight-day week.

So we can conclude confidently that our current Saturday is the seventh day of the week, on the same weekly cycle that has been in place since the beginning of creation—a cycle established and confirmed by God Himself.