History Podcasts

Federico Lorca Garcia

Federico Lorca Garcia

Federico Garcia Lorca was born in Fuente Vaqueros in Spain in 1898. He attended the University of Granada where he emerged as a major poet.

After leaving university he lived in Madrid where he wrote poems, articles, plays and song lyrics. His best known work includes Blood Wedding (1933), Yerma (1934) and The House of Bernarda Alba (1934).

A supporter of the Popular Front government, Garcia Lorca moved to Granada on the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War. In July 1936, Garcia Lorca and his socialist brother-in-law, who was also mayor of Granada, were arrested by supporters of the Nationalist Army.

José Valdés Guzmán, the head of the local Falange Española, ordered his execution in August. It is estimated that Guzmán was responsible for the execution of about 2,000 supporters of the Popular Front in Granada.


This week in history: Spanish poet-playwright Federico García Lorca murdered

Eighty years ago, on August 19, 1936, in the beginning weeks of the Spanish Civil War, the world-renowned poet and playwright Federico García Lorca was murdered by fascist soldiers.

His most famous plays include Blood Wedding, Yerma, and The House of Bernarda Alba.

Throughout his all too short but trailblazing life (1898-1936), death had been his central artistic theme – and at the age of 38 Lorca met the violent fate he had foreseen when he wrote: “Then I realized I had been murdered. They looked for me in cafés, cemeteries and churches…but they did not find me. They never found me? No. They never found me.”

Few artists have represented and embodied their nation’s collective spirit better than Lorca – which makes the tragic account of his death all the more heartbreaking. Shortly after the Spanish Civil War broke out in July 1936, Lorca made the misguided decision to leave the safe enclave of Madrid to be with his family in his conservative hometown of Granada. Almost immediately after he arrived, the area was seized by the rebel fascist forces, the Nationalist Falangists. In spite of publicly cultivating an apolitical stance, his association with the Republic, his plays which dealt with repression, and some anti-Catholic statements in interviews had made Lorca a high-profile target. Another contributory factor to the Nationalists’ hatred of Lorca was his homosexuality.

Lorca went into hiding, but the Falangists hunted him down until, on August 16 th , he was arrested and imprisoned without explanation or trial. On August 19 th at approximately 3:00 a.m., he was handcuffed to another prisoner – a teacher – and taken in a car to a building called La Colina in Viznar, which the Falange was using as a holding camp for condemned prisoners. Shortly before dawn he was taken out, along with the teacher and two bullfighters (who were members of the anarchist trade union CNT) and shot. One witness claimed that Lorca was singled out for merciless torture and, in his last moments, was made to suffer for his homosexuality with several bullets targeting his posterior before the fatal shot. Then the body of Federico García Lorca, one of the greatest writers of the twentieth century and one of Spain’s most prodigious sons, was unceremoniously dumped in a hastily dug but soon-to-be mass grave.

His books were burned in Granada’s Plaza del Carmen and were soon banned from Generalissimo Francisco Franco’s Spain. To this day, no one knows exactly where the body of Federico García Lorca rests.

The death of this beloved national hero was quickly covered up by the victorious Nationalists. The ban on all of his works was not fully rescinded until after the dictator’s death in 1975. Lorca’s plays are mounted frequently all over the world.

Although a dossier regarding Lorca’s assassination is thought to exist, its failure to surface continues to pain his relatives and associates. In 2009, however, a judge opened an investigation into the circumstances surrounding Lorca’s murder, and the poet’s family reversed their long-standing opposition to searching for his remains amongst the mass grave at Barranco de Viznar.

This action was, according to his biographer Ian Gibson, long overdue: “I think it is essential to find the body, out of respect for Garcia Lorca. Where did they kill him exactly? Did they torture him? One certain fact about his life would be worth 100 books…. Lorca belongs to humanity, not his family. He is an emblem who gave his life for Spain. He is a martyr.”

Ainadamar (“Fountain of Tears” in Arabic) is the first opera by Argentinean composer Osvaldo Golijov, with a Spanish-language libretto by American playwright David Henry Hwang. It premiered in 2003 and has been staged several times since by other companies. The opera relates Lorca’s opposition to fascism, accusations of homosexuality, and his subsequent murder.

See here for Gregory McNamee’s brief but moving reflection on Lorca’s death.


Lorca mystery may soon be solved but much of Spain’s past remains buried

Archeologists believe they may be close to finding body of playwright and poet killed by firing squad in 1936 but campaigners say searches of more than 2,000 mass graves around country are becoming increasingly difficult to carry out

Federico Garcia Lorca was killed and buried in an unmarked spot in the mountains of Granada by fascist soldiers. Photograph: Sipa Press/Rex Features

Federico Garcia Lorca was killed and buried in an unmarked spot in the mountains of Granada by fascist soldiers. Photograph: Sipa Press/Rex Features

Last modified on Thu 30 Nov 2017 04.07 GMT

In the hills overlooking Granada, forensic archeologists buzz excitedly around a cordoned-off site. A blue tarp sits in the middle, marking the spot where they believe lies the answer to one of Spain’s great mysteries of recent times. Since mid-November, the team has been working from sunrise to sunset to locate the remains of playwright and poet Federico García Lorca.

It is on this barren patch of land, just up the road from the tiny village of Viznar, that the author of Blood Wedding and The House of Bernarda Alba is thought to have been shot by a rightwing firing squad in 1936.

The findings have so far been encouraging, says lead archaeologist Javier Navarro. The final resting place of one of Spain’s most famous civil war victims was flagged in a 2011 book detailing his final hours. “Everything we’ve done to date confirms that this is the spot we’ve been looking for,” said Navarro.

The search for Lorca’s remains made headlines around the world, but the attention masked an increasingly common complaint across the country. Seven years after the country passed legislation designed to make it easier for Spain to confront its past, campaigners say searches of the more than 2,000 known mass graves are becoming increasing difficult to carry out.

When Spain’s then-socialist government introduced a historical memory law in 2007, many heralded it as a crucial first step towards recognising the country’s murky past. The law removed Francoist monuments and symbols from public places and made it easier to locate and dig up the estimated 114,000 people who disappeared during the 1936-39 civil war and the ensuing dictatorship that ended only after Franco’s death in 1975.

But little has progressed in recent years, said Emilio Silva of the Association for the Recovery of Historical Memory. In 2000, he sparked a movement when he carried out the first scientific dig for the remains of his own grandfather and a dozen other victims from a mass grave in northern Spain. His group has since gone on to find some 6,000 bodies.

The historical memory law provided four years of subsidies, helping Silva’s group locate 5,400 bodies. But when the right wing People’s party came to power in 2011, funding stopped.

Technical staff start excavations in a park near Granada, where Federico Garcia Lorca is believed to be buried. Photograph: Jorge Guerrero/AFP/Getty Images

Few were surprised. As he campaigned to become prime minister in 2008, Mariano Rajoy voiced his concerns that the law exacerbated divisions in the country, telling Spanish media: “I would eliminate all the articles in the historical memory law that mention using public funds to recover the past. I wouldn’t give even a single euro of public funds for that.”

In the absence of secure funding, a patchwork system of different institutions and assistance has emerged among the country’s regions, with Catalonia, the Basque Country and Andalusia being the only ones to offer organised assistance to victims’ families. Silva’s group turned to fundraising – even crowdfunding in some cases – to pay for the digs. “The last exhumation was carried out thanks to a €6,000 [£4,750] donation from a Norwegian electricians’ union,” he said wryly. “It’s something that any government should be ashamed of, but it doesn’t seem to bother anyone here.”

The group has also attempted to secure funding from international organisations, with little success. “Many think that giving us money would be an insult to Europe, as it would imply that there is a problem with human rights. We’re in a limbo.”Volunteers carry out most of the workassociated with the digs, but the DNA testing is costly. The group’s go-to lab – which has always been lenient about payment – is on the brink of closure, he said.

Mount Estepar near Burgos, where the remains of people dumped in mass graves during the Spanish civil war were being unearthed this summer. Photograph: CESAR MANSO/AFP/Getty Images

Funding woes are compounded by a lack of political will to meaningfully address the past, said Silva. He pointed to Madrid’s Victory Arch, built to commemorate Franco’s victory in the Spanish civil war. “It’s located 800 metres from the residency of the prime minister. Every prime minister since the death of Franco has passed by the arch hundreds of times, but not one of them saw any contradiction between having a monument to a coup d’etat in a democratic culture.”His group gained a powerful ally in September when a United Nations working group on forced disappearances wrapped up an investigation in the country and concluded that the Spanish government must take political responsibility and draw up a plan to search for the country’s missing.

This search isn’t a task to be carried out by families, but an obligation of the Spanish state, said Ariel Dulitzky of the UN group. He called on Spain to overturn a 1977 amnesty law for crimes committed during the dictatorship and dismissed any worries about opening old wounds.

“The wounds are there,” he said. “They are open, and in the case of forced disappearances, they will remain open until we know what happened. They are not going to go away.” The Spanish government has until mid-December to respond to the UN group’s recommendations.

For many fighting for justice, time is running out. Ascensión Mendieta flew to Buenos Aires on her 88th birthday last year, where a judge has invoked the principle of universal justice to address Franco-era crimes. “I just want to take at least one of my father’s bones to my grave. Then I’ll die peacefully,” she told reporters last year, clutching a picture of her father as she embarked on the 6,000-mile journey. She was 13 in 1939 when her father, a local union leader, was shot after a summary hearing, Mendieta told the court. He had been turned in by a neighbour and a soldier for “aiding the rebellion”.

Her search for justice began in Spain but continued to run into roadblocks, said her daughter Chon Vargas. The case unfolding in Argentina soon seemed like the only real opportunity to investigate the past.

In February, the Argentinian court ordered Spain to excavate the patch of land in the Spanish province of Guadalajara where Mendieta believes the remains of her father lie and carry out a DNA test. The family is still waiting for the Spanish court to respond.

As her mother readies to Mendieta celebrated her 89th birthday on Saturday and Vargas was hoping to soon have an answer for her mother. “She’s in very delicate shape. But I’m hoping with all my heart that we’ll have good news.”High up in the hills of Granada, Javier Navarro took a break from the Lorca search to explain that if the playwright’s remains are found, a court will then determine the next steps. The archaeologist shakes his head as he contemplates finally being able to turn the page on a small part of a dark chapter in Spanish history. “They’re digging up graves in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and even Iraq, while in Spain they make things so difficult,” he said. “But in a civilised country you can’t leave people in a field as if they were scum.”


Contents

Early years Edit

García Lorca was born on 5 June 1898, in Fuente Vaqueros, a small town 17 km west of Granada, southern Spain. [8] His father, Federico García Rodríguez, was a prosperous landowner with a farm in the fertile vega (valley) near Granada and a comfortable villa in the heart of the city. García Rodríguez saw his fortunes rise with a boom in the sugar industry. García Lorca's mother, Vicenta Lorca Romero, was a teacher. After Fuente Vaqueros, the family moved in 1905 to the nearby town of Valderrubio (at the time named Asquerosa). In 1909, when the boy was 11, his family moved to the regional capital of Granada, where there was the equivalent of a high school their best-known residence there is the summer home called the Huerta de San Vicente, on what were then the outskirts of the city of Granada. For the rest of his life, he maintained the importance of living close to the natural world, praising his upbringing in the country. [8] All three of these homes—Fuente Vaqueros, Valderrubio, and Huerta de San Vicente—are today museums. [9] [10] [11]

In 1915, after graduating from secondary school, García Lorca attended the University of Granada. During this time his studies included law, literature, and composition. Throughout his adolescence, he felt a deeper affinity for music than for literature. When he was 11 years old, he began six years of piano lessons with Antonio Segura Mesa, a harmony teacher in the local conservatory and a composer. It was Segura who inspired Federico's dream of developing a career in music. [12] His first artistic inspirations arose from the scores of Claude Debussy, Frédéric Chopin and Ludwig van Beethoven. [12] Later, with his friendship with composer Manuel de Falla, Spanish folklore became his muse. García Lorca did not begin a career in writing until Segura died in 1916, and his first prose works such as "Nocturne", "Ballade", and "Sonata" drew on musical forms. [13] His milieu of young intellectuals gathered in El Rinconcillo at the Café Alameda in Granada. During 1916 and 1917, García Lorca traveled throughout Castile, León, and Galicia, in northern Spain, with a professor of his university, who also encouraged him to write his first book, Impresiones y paisajes (Impressions and Landscapes—printed at his father's expense in 1918). Fernando de los Rios persuaded García Lorca's parents to let him move to the progressive, Oxbridge-inspired Residencia de Estudiantes in Madrid in 1919, while nominally attending classes at the University of Madrid. [13]

As a young writer Edit

At the Residencia de Estudiantes in Madrid, García Lorca befriended Luis Buñuel and Salvador Dalí and many other creative artists who were, or would become, influential across Spain. [13] He was taken under the wing of the poet Juan Ramón Jiménez, becoming close to playwright Eduardo Marquina and Gregorio Martínez Sierra, the Director of Madrid's Teatro Eslava. [13]

In 1919–20, at Sierra's invitation, he wrote and staged his first play, The Butterfly's Evil Spell. It was a verse play dramatising the impossible love between a cockroach and a butterfly, with a supporting cast of other insects it was laughed off the stage by an unappreciative public after only four performances and influenced García Lorca's attitude to the theatre-going public for the rest of his career. He would later claim that Mariana Pineda, written in 1927, was, in fact, his first play. During the time at the Residencia de Estudiantes, he pursued degrees in law and philosophy, though he had more interest in writing than study. [13]

García Lorca's first book of poems, Libro de poemas, was published in 1921, collecting work written from 1918 and selected with the help of his brother Francisco (nicknamed Paquito). They concern the themes of religious faith, isolation, and nature that had filled his prose reflections. [14] Early in 1922 at Granada García Lorca joined the composer Manuel de Falla in order to promote the Concurso de Cante Jondo, a festival dedicated to enhance flamenco performance. The year before Lorca had begun to write his Poema del cante jondo ("Poem of the Deep Song", not published until 1931), so he naturally composed an essay on the art of flamenco, [15] and began to speak publicly in support of the Concurso. At the music festival in June he met the celebrated Manuel Torre, a flamenco cantaor. The next year in Granada he also collaborated with Falla and others on the musical production of a play for children, La niña que riega la albahaca y el príncipe preguntón (The Girl that Waters the Basil and the Inquisitive Prince) adapted by Lorca from an Andalusian story. [16] Inspired by the same structural form of sequence as "Deep Song", his collection Suites (1923) was never finished and not published until 1983. [14]

Over the next few years, García Lorca became increasingly involved in Spain's avant-garde. He published a poetry collection called Canciones (Songs), although it did not contain songs in the usual sense. Shortly after, Lorca was invited to exhibit a series of drawings at the Galeries Dalmau in Barcelona, from 25 June to 2 July 1927. [17] Lorca's sketches were a blend of popular and avant-garde styles, complementing Canción. Both his poetry and drawings reflected the influence of traditional Andalusian motifs, Cubist syntax, and a preoccupation with sexual identity. Several drawings consisted of superimposed dreamlike faces (or shadows). He later described the double faces as self-portraits, showing "man's capacity for crying as well as winning," inline with his conviction that sorrow and joy were inseparable, just as life and death. [18]

Romancero Gitano (Gypsy Ballads, 1928), part of his Cancion series, became his best known book of poetry. [19] It was a highly stylised imitation of the ballads and poems that were still being told throughout the Spanish countryside. García Lorca describes the work as a "carved altar piece" of Andalusia with "gypsies, horses, archangels, planets, its Jewish and Roman breezes, rivers, crimes, the everyday touch of the smuggler and the celestial note of the naked children of Córdoba. A book that hardly expresses visible Andalusia at all, but where the hidden Andalusia trembles." [19] In 1928, the book brought him fame across Spain and the Hispanic world, and it was only much later that he gained notability as a playwright. For the rest of his life, the writer would search for the elements of Andaluce culture, trying to find its essence without resorting to the "picturesque" or the clichéd use of "local colour". [20]

His second play, Mariana Pineda, with stage settings by Salvador Dalí, opened to great acclaim in Barcelona in 1927. [13] In 1926, García Lorca wrote the play The Shoemaker's Prodigious Wife, which would not be shown until the early 1930s. It was a farce about fantasy, based on the relationship between a flirtatious, petulant wife and a hen-pecked shoemaker.

From 1925 to 1928, he was passionately involved with Dalí. [21] Although Dali's friendship with Lorca had a strong element of mutual passion, [b] Dalí said he rejected the erotic advances of the poet. [22] With the success of "Gypsy Ballads", came an estrangement from Dalí and the breakdown of a love affair with sculptor Emilio Aladrén Perojo. These brought on an increasing depression, a situation exacerbated by his anguish over his homosexuality. He felt he was trapped between the persona of the successful author, which he was forced to maintain in public, and the tortured, authentic self, which he could acknowledge only in private. He also had the sense that he was being pigeon-holed as a "gypsy poet". He wrote: "The gypsies are a theme. And nothing more. I could just as well be a poet of sewing needles or hydraulic landscapes. Besides, this gypsyism gives me the appearance of an uncultured, ignorant and primitive poet that you know very well I'm not. I don't want to be typecast." [20]

Growing estrangement between García Lorca and his closest friends reached its climax when surrealists Dalí and Luis Buñuel collaborated on their 1929 film Un Chien Andalou (An Andalusian Dog). García Lorca interpreted it, perhaps erroneously, as a vicious attack upon himself. [23] At this time Dalí also met his future wife Gala. Aware of these problems (though not perhaps of their causes), García Lorca's family arranged for him to make a lengthy visit to the United States in 1929–30.

Green wind. Green branches.
The ship out on the sea
and the horse on the mountain.
With the shadow at the waist
she dreams on her balcony,
green flesh, green hair,
with eyes of cold silver.

From "Romance Sonámbulo",
("Sleepwalking Romance"), García Lorca

In June 1929, García Lorca travelled to the US with Fernando de los Rios on the RMS Olympic, a sister liner to the RMS Titanic. [24] They stayed mostly in New York City, where Rios started a lecture tour and García Lorca enrolled at Columbia University School of General Studies, funded by his parents. He studied English but, as before, was more absorbed by writing than study. He also spent time in Vermont and later in Havana, Cuba.

His collection Poeta en Nueva York (Poet in New York, published posthumously in 1942) explores alienation and isolation through some graphically experimental poetic techniques and was influenced by the Wall Street crash which he personally witnessed. [25] [26] [27]

This condemnation of urban capitalist society and materialistic modernity was a sharp departure from his earlier work and label as a folklorist. [24] His play of this time, El público (The Public), was not published until the late 1970s and has never been published in its entirety, the complete manuscript apparently lost. However, the Hispanic Society of America in New York City retains several of his personal letters. [28] [29]

The Second Republic Edit

García Lorca's return to Spain in 1930 coincided with the fall of the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera and the establishment of the Second Spanish Republic. [24] In 1931, García Lorca was appointed director of a student theatre company, Teatro Universitario La Barraca (The Shack). It was funded by the Second Republic's Ministry of Education, and it was charged with touring Spain's rural areas in order to introduce audiences to classical Spanish theatre free of charge. With a portable stage and little equipment, they sought to bring theatre to people who had never seen any, with García Lorca directing as well as acting. He commented: "Outside of Madrid, the theatre, which is in its very essence a part of the life of the people, is almost dead, and the people suffer accordingly, as they would if they had lost their two eyes, or ears, or a sense of taste. We [La Barraca] are going to give it back to them." [24] His experiences traveling through impoverished rural Spain and New York (particularly amongst the disenfranchised African-American population), transformed him into a passionate advocate of the theatre of social action. [24] He wrote "The theatre is a school of weeping and of laughter, a free forum, where men can question norms that are outmoded or mistaken and explain with living example the eternal norms of the human heart." [24]

While touring with La Barraca, García Lorca wrote his now best-known plays, the "Rural Trilogy" of Blood Wedding, Yerma and The House of Bernarda Alba, which all rebelled against the norms of bourgeois Spanish society. [24] He called for a rediscovery of the roots of European theatre and the questioning of comfortable conventions such as the popular drawing-room comedies of the time. His work challenged the accepted role of women in society and explored taboo issues of homoeroticism and class. García Lorca wrote little poetry in this last period of his life, declaring in 1936, "theatre is poetry that rises from the book and becomes human enough to talk and shout, weep and despair." [30]

Travelling to Buenos Aires in 1933 to give lectures and direct the Argentine premiere of Blood Wedding, García Lorca spoke of his distilled theories on artistic creation and performance in the famous lecture Play and Theory of the Duende. This attempted to define a schema of artistic inspiration, arguing that great art depends upon a vivid awareness of death, connection with a nation's soil, and an acknowledgment of the limitations of reason. [30] [31]

As well as returning to the classical roots of theatre, García Lorca also turned to traditional forms in poetry. His last poetic work, Sonetos de amor oscuro (Sonnets of Dark Love, 1936), was long thought to have been inspired by his passion for Rafael Rodríguez Rapun, secretary of La Barraca. Documents and mementos revealed in 2012 suggest that the actual inspiration was Juan Ramírez de Lucas, a 19-year-old with whom Lorca hoped to emigrate to Mexico. [32] The love sonnets are inspired by the 16th-century poet San Juan de la Cruz. [33] La Barraca's subsidy was cut in half by the rightist government elected in 1934, and its last performance was given in April 1936.

Lorca spent summers at the Huerta de San Vicente from 1926 to 1936. Here he wrote, totally or in part, some of his major works, among them When Five Years Pass (Así que pasen cinco años) (1931), Blood Wedding (1932), Yerma (1934) and Diván del Tamarit (1931–1936). The poet lived in the Huerta de San Vicente in the days just before his arrest and assassination in August 1936. [34]

Although García Lorca's drawings do not often receive attention, he was also a talented artist. [35] [36]

Political and social tensions had greatly intensified after the murder of prominent monarchist and anti-Popular Front spokesman José Calvo Sotelo by Republican Assault Guards (Guardias de asalto). [37] García Lorca knew that he would be suspect to the rising right-wing for his outspoken socialist views. [33] Granada was so tumultuous that it had not had a mayor for months no one dared accept the job. When Garcia Lorca's brother-in-law, Manuel Fernández-Montesinos, agreed to accept the position, he was assassinated within a week. On the same day he was shot, 18 August, Garcia Lorca was arrested. [38]

It is thought that García Lorca was shot and killed by Nationalist militia [39] [40] on 19 August 1936. [41] The author Ian Gibson in his book The Assassination of García Lorca argues that he was shot with three others (Joaquín Arcollas Cabezas, Francisco Galadí Melgar and Dióscoro Galindo González) at a place known as the Fuente Grande ('Great Spring') which is on the road between Víznar and Alfacar. [42] Police reports released by radio station Cadena SER in April 2015 conclude that Lorca was executed by fascist forces. The Franco-era report, dated 9 July 1965, describes the writer as a "socialist" and "freemason belonging to the Alhambra lodge", who engaged in "homosexual and abnormal practices". [43] [44] [45]

Significant controversy exists about the motives and details of Garcia Lorca's murder. Personal, non-political motives have been suggested. García Lorca's biographer, Stainton, states that his killers made remarks about his sexual orientation, suggesting that it played a role in his death. [46] Ian Gibson suggests that García Lorca's assassination was part of a campaign of mass killings intended to eliminate supporters of the Leftist Popular Front. [38] However, Gibson proposes that rivalry between the right-wing Spanish Confederation of the Autonomous Right (CEDA) and the fascist Falange was a major factor in Lorca's death. Former CEDA Parliamentary Deputy Ramón Ruiz Alonso arrested García Lorca at the Rosales's home, and was the one responsible for the original denunciation that led to the arrest warrant being issued.

Then I realized I had been murdered.
They looked for me in cafes, cemeteries and churches
. but they did not find me.
They never found me?
No. They never found me.

From "The Fable And Round of the Three Friends",
Poet in New York (1929), García Lorca

It has been argued that García Lorca was apolitical and had many friends in both Republican and Nationalist camps. Gibson disputes this in his 1978 book about the poet's death. [38] He cites, for example, Mundo Obrero ' s published manifesto, which Lorca later signed, and alleges that Garcia Lorca was an active supporter of the Popular Front. [47] Garcia Lorca read out this manifesto at a banquet in honour of fellow poet Rafael Alberti on 9 February 1936.

Many anti-communists were sympathetic to Garcia Lorca or assisted him. In the days before his arrest he found shelter in the house of the artist and leading Falange member Luis Rosales. Indeed, evidence suggests that Rosales was very nearly shot as well by the Civil Governor Valdés for helping García Lorca. Poet Gabriel Celaya wrote in his memoirs that he once found García Lorca in the company of Falangist José Maria Aizpurua. Celaya further wrote that Lorca dined every Friday with Falangist founder and leader José Antonio Primo de Rivera. [48] On 11 March 1937 an article appeared in the Falangist press denouncing the murder and lionizing García Lorca the article opened: "The finest poet of Imperial Spain has been assassinated." [49] Jean-Louis Schonberg also put forward the 'homosexual jealousy' theory. [50] The dossier on the murder, compiled in 1936 at Franco's request and referred to by Gibson and others without having seen it, has yet to surface. The first published account of an attempt to locate Garcia Lorca's grave can be found in a 1949 book by British Hispanist Gerald Brenan The Face of Spain. [51] However, the grave has remained undiscovered.

In the 20th century there was speculation as to the location of Lorca's remains, for example by the hispanists Gerard Brenan and Ian Gibson, but attempts to locate and identify began in the 21st century. By this time, advances in technology gave scope for identifying remains of victims of Francoist repression. The year 2000 saw the foundation of the Association for the Recovery of Historical Memory which grew out of the quest by a sociologist, Emilio Silva-Barrera, to locate and identify the remains of his grandfather, who was shot by Franco's forces in 1936.

Three attempts have been made to locate Lorca's remains. The first, in 2009, in the García Lorca Memorial Park the second, in 2014, [52] less than a kilometer from the first excavation and the last, in 2016, in Alfacar. [53]

In 2008, a Spanish judge opened an investigation into Lorca's death. The García Lorca family dropped objections to the excavation of a potential gravesite near Alfacar, but no human remains were found. [54] [55] The investigation was dropped. A further investigation was begun in 2016, to no avail. [56]

In late October 2009, a team of archaeologists and historians from the University of Granada began excavations outside Alfacar. [57] The site was identified three decades previously by a man who said he had helped dig Lorca's grave. [58] [59] Lorca was thought to be buried with at least three other men beside a winding mountain road that connects the villages of Víznar and Alfacar. [60]

The excavations began at the request of another victim's family. [61] Following a long-standing objection, the Lorca family also gave their permission. [61] In October 2009 Francisco Espínola, a spokesman for the Justice Ministry of the Andalusian regional government, said that after years of pressure García Lorca's body would "be exhumed in a matter of weeks." [62] Lorca's relatives, who had initially opposed an exhumation, said they might provide a DNA sample in order to identify his remains. [61]

In late November 2009, after two weeks of excavating the site, organic material that was believed to be human bones were recovered. The remains were taken to the University of Granada for examination. [63] But in mid-December 2009, doubts were raised as to whether the poet's remains would be found. [64] The dig produced "not one bone, item of clothing or bullet shell", said Begoña Álvarez, justice minister of Andalucia. She added, "the soil was only 40 cm (16in) deep, making it too shallow for a grave." [65] [66] The failed excavation cost €70,000. [67]

In January 2012, a local historian, Miguel Caballero Pérez, author of "The last 13 hours of García Lorca", [68] applied for permission to excavate another area less than half a kilometre from the site, where he believes Lorca's remains are located. [69]

Claims in 2016, by Stephen Roberts, an associate professor in Spanish literature at Nottingham University, and others that the poet's body was buried in a well in Alfacar have not been substantiated. [70]

In 2021 it was reported that there would be an investigation of mass graves at Barranco de Viznar (a locality near Víznar where there is a memorial to Lorca). This project had the support of families who believe that relatives were buried there. The archaeologist directing the investigation explained that the poet was only one of hundreds of people whose remains might be there. [71]

Francisco Franco's Falangist regime placed a general ban on García Lorca's work, which was not rescinded until 1953. That year, a (censored) Obras completas (Complete Works) was released. Following this, Blood Wedding, Yerma and The House of Bernarda Alba were successfully played on the main Spanish stages. Obras completas did not include his late heavily homoerotic Sonnets of Dark Love, written in November 1935 and shared only with close friends. They were lost until 1983/4 when they were finally published in draft form. (No final manuscripts have ever been found.) It was only after Franco's death that García Lorca's life and death could be openly discussed in Spain. This was due not only to political censorship, but also to the reluctance of the García Lorca family to allow publication of unfinished poems and plays prior to the publication of a critical edition of his works.

South African Roman Catholic poet Roy Campbell, who enthusiastically supported the Nationalists both during and after the Civil War, later produced acclaimed translations of Lorca's work. In his poem, The Martyrdom of F. Garcia Lorca, Campbell wrote,

Not only did he lose his life
By shots assassinated:
But with a hammer and a knife
Was after that
– translated. [72]

In Granada, the city of his birth, the Parque Federico García Lorca is dedicated to his memory and includes the Huerta de San Vicente, the Lorca family summer home, opened as a museum in 1995. The grounds, including nearly two hectares of land, the two adjoining houses, works of art, and the original furnishings have been preserved. [73] There is a statue of Lorca on the Avenida de la Constitución in the city center, and a cultural center bearing his name is under construction [ when? ] and will play a major role in preserving and disseminating his works.

The Parque Federico García Lorca, in Alfacar, is near Fuente Grande in 2009 excavations in it failed to locate Lorca's body. Close to the olive tree indicated by some as marking the location of the grave, there is a stone memorial to Federico García Lorca and all other victims of the Civil War, 1936–1939. Flowers are laid at the memorial every year on the anniversary of his death, and a commemorative event including music and readings of the poet's works is held every year in the park to mark the anniversary. On 17 August 2011, to remember the 75th anniversary of Lorca's assassination and to celebrate his life and legacy, this event included dance, song, poetry and dramatic readings and attracted hundreds of spectators.

At the Barranco de Viznar, between Viznar and Alfacar, there is a memorial stone bearing the words "Lorca eran todos, 18-8-2002" ("All were Lorca"). The Barranco de Viznar is the site of mass graves and has been proposed as another possible location of the poet's remains.

García Lorca is honored by a statue prominently located in Madrid's Plaza de Santa Ana. Political philosopher David Crocker reported in 2014 that "the statue, at least, is still an emblem of the contested past: each day, the Left puts a red kerchief on the neck of the statue, and someone from the Right comes later to take it off." [74]

In Paris, France, the memory of García Lorca is honored on the Federico García Lorca Garden, in the center of the French capital, on the Seine.

The Fundación Federico García Lorca, directed by Lorca's niece Laura García Lorca, sponsors the celebration and dissemination of the writer's work and is currently [ when? ] building the Centro Federico García Lorca in Madrid. The Lorca family deposited all Federico documents with the foundation, which holds them on their behalf. [75]

In the Hotel Castelar in Buenos Aires, Argentina, where Lorca lived for six months in 1933, the room where he lived has been kept as a shrine and contains original writings and drawings of his.

In 2014 Lorca was one of the inaugural honorees in the Rainbow Honor Walk, a walk of fame in San Francisco's Castro neighborhood noting LGBTQ people who have "made significant contributions in their fields." [76] [77] [78]


Poet, playwright. Born on June 5, 1898, in Fuente Vaqueros, Spain. Considered one of Spain&aposs greatest poets and dramatists, Lorca went to Madrid in 1919 where he entered the Residencia de Estudiantes, or residence of scholars. While at the residence, he met and befriended artist Salvador Dali around 1921. Dali would later design the scenery for the Barcelona production of Lorca&aposs play Mariana Pineda (1927).

Lorca&aposs two most successful poetry collections were Canciones (Songs), published in 1927, and Romancero gitano (the Gypsy Ballads), published in 1928. Romancero gitano was especially daring for the time with its exploration of sexual themes and made Lorca a celebrity in the literary world. In the 1930s, Lorca spent much of his time working on plays, including a folk drama trilogy Bodas de Sangre (Blood Wedding) in 1933, Yerma in 1934, and La Casa de Bernarda Alba (The House of Bernarda Alba) in 1936.


PRIDE MONTH + Gay History – June 5: Torch Song Trilogy, Federico Garcia Lorca, The Committee for Homosexual Freedom and MORE!

1883 – Birth date of John Maynard Keynes, economist and mathematician. Keyes an English economist, fundamentally changed the theory and practice of macroeconomics and the economic policies of governments. He built on and greatly refined earlier work on the causes of business cycles, and is widely considered to be one of the most influential economists of the 20th century and the founder of modern macroeconomics. Time magazine included Keynes among its Most Important People of the Century in 1999, saying that “his radical idea that governments should spend money they don’t have may have saved capitalism.

Attitudes in the Bloomsbury Group, in which Keynes was avidly involved, were relaxed about homosexuality. Keynes, together with writer Lytton Strachey, had reshaped the Victorian attitudes of the Cambridge Apostles: “since [their] time, homosexual relations among the members were for a time common”, wrote Bertrand Russell. Artist Duncan Grant, was one of Keynes’s great loves. Keynes was also involved with Lytton Strachey though they were for the most part love rivals, not lovers. Keynes had won the affections of Arthur Hobhouse and as with Grant, fell out with a jealous Strachey for it. Strachey had previously found himself put off by Keynes, not least because of his manner of “treat[ing] his love affairs statistically”.

Political opponents have used Keynes’s sexuality to attack his academic work. One line of attack held that he was uninterested in the long term ramifications of his theories because he had no children.

1898 – Birth date of gay Spanish poet Federico Garcia Lorca. García Lorca achieved international recognition as an emblematic member of the Generation of 󈧟. The Generation of 󈧟 was a group consisting of mostly poets who introduced the tenets of European movements (such as symbolism, futurism, and surrealism) into Spanish literature. He was executed by Nationalist forces at the beginning of the Spanish Civil War His body has never been found. In 2008, a Spanish judge opened an investigation into Lorca’s death.

Significant controversy exists about the motives and details of Lorca’s murder. Personal, non-political motives have been suggested. García Lorca’s biographer, Stainton, states that his killers made remarks about his sexual orientation, suggesting that it played a role in his death

1968 – William Weisel of ABC News was shot in the stomach by Sirhan Sirhan during the assassination of Robert Kennedy in Los Angeles. During the 1970’s. Weisel owned a popular gay dance club in Washington, DC.

1969 – The “Committee for Homosexual Freedom” newsletter announced that after two weeks of picketing, Frank Dennaro, who was fired from his job at Tower Records because he was gay, was re-hired. Tower Records also instituted perhaps one of the first non-discrimination hiring policies which included gay men because of the picketing. This was one month before the Stonewall Riots in New York City would happen.

1974 – Out actor and activist Chad Allen was born in Cerritos, California. First gaining attention as an autistic child in the T.V. drama St. Elsewhere, Allen appeared in nearly a dozen shows during the 1980s and 90s, including Our House, Webster, My Two Dads, and Dr. Quinn: Medicine Woman. Allen came out in an interview in The Advocate in 2001, after pictures of a same-sex kiss appeared in a tabloid in 1996. When Allen appeared in The End of the Spear, playing a conservative missionary who was murdered by natives in South America the role angered many KKK-ristians who viewed Allen’s activism as being against the principles of their faith.

1981 – At 4 am on the night of May 30th. fifty-four police officers smashed through the back door of the Pisces Bath House in Edmonton, Canada. . Fifty-six men were arrested. Mug shots with names were taken. Crown prosecutors issued court summons with charges under the Canadian Criminal Code. Six men, owners and employees, were charged with being keepers of a common “bawdy house”. On June 5th all plead guilty in Provincial Court. The owners receive heavy fines.

1983 – Harvey Fierstein’s play “Torch Song Trilogy” won the Tony Award for Best Play of the 1982-83 season.

Torch Song Trilogy is a collection of three plays by Fierstein rendered in three acts: International Stud, Fugue in a Nursery, and Widows and Children First! The story centers on Arnold Beckoff, a Jewish homosexual, drag queen, and torch singer who lives in New York City in the late 1970’s and early 1980’s. The four-hour play begins with a soliloquy in which he explains his cynical disillusionment with love.

The first act derives its name (International Stud) from an actual gay bar of the same name at 117 Perry Street in Greenwich Village in the 1960’s and 1970’s. The bar had a backroom where men engaged in anonymous sex. The backroom plays a central role in the act.

The popular work broke new ground in the theatre: “At the height of the post-Stonewall clone era, Harvey challenged both gay and straight audiences to champion an effeminate gay man’s longings for love and family.

1989 – Congressional Republicans began circulating a memo that Democratic House Speaker Thomas Foley was a homosexual. The memo compared Foley’s voting record to openly gay Rep. Barney Frank. Those responsible for the memo apologized after Frank threatened to start outing Republican members of congress.

1997 – Colorado governor Roy Romer vetoed a state measure seeking to ban same-sex marriage for the second time. He instead appointed a commission to investigate the rights and responsibilities of same-sex relationships.

1997 – Former Georgia Attorney General Michael Bowers, who fought to have the US Supreme Court uphold Georgia’s sodomy law, admitted to having had an adulterous affair that lasted over a decade. Georgia’s sodomy law carries penalties for adultery.

1999 – “Time” magazine placed Harvey Milk alongside Mother Theresa and Rosa Parks as one of the Heroes of the Century.

2003 – A federal judge rejected a Christian hate group’s attempt to remove a no-fly zone around Disney World so it could fly planes trailing anti-gay banners over the resort during the annual Gay Days event.

2003 – California’s Assembly passed legislation giving gay and lesbian domestic partners many of the rights of marriage.


The Life of Lorca

Lorca was born in Fuente Vaqueros, a small town about 15km from Granada and lived as ‘a rich boy in a little village’ with his land-owning father and school teacher mother. The village is in an area of Granada known as La Vega, a green plain watered by snows from the Sierra Nevada and Lorca, although he had a morbid fear of drowning, grew up as a ‘modest dreamer and son of the water’.

Fuente Vaqueros was, according to Lorca, a ‘pleasant, modern, earthy and liberal village’ and the street in which he was born has now been renamed as Calle Poeta García Lorca. His former home is now a fascinating small museum with a collection of photographs and manuscripts and across the street is a monument to the poet. The rest of the town is typical of the area around Granada with little of interest to tourists although, not surprisingly, there is a “Bar Lorca” in town.

The family moved into Granada itself in 1909 and Lorca spent his teenage years here, becoming widely known in the artistic circles of the city. When he moved to Madrid ten years later he became a member of the famous ‘Residencia de Estudiantes’ where he met Luis Buñuel and Salvador Dalí (with whom he would have both an artistic and a romantic relationship).

Many summers were spent at Cadaqués on the Costa Brava with Dalí and his family and, although his artistic talents were developing, his personal insecurities were never far away. His parents arranged for him to spend time in America, especially New York, and he also visited Havana where the city’s main theatre is named in his honour. Lorca wrote that he spent ‘the happiest days of my life’ in Cuba.

Returning to Spain during the days of the Second Republic Lorca enjoyed an artistically profitable time touring with a university theatre company dedicated to taking classic Spanish plays out to the provinces. This was disbanded in April 1936 just three days before the Civil War began and he returned to his family home in Granada.

The family had in fact moved in 1926 to a house in the small district of Huerta de San Vicente – at that time just outside the city but now firmly inside its boundaries. Lorca wrote that ‘the melancholic, contemplative man goes to Granada – to be alone near the bonfires of saffron, deep gray and blotting-paper pink – the walls of the Alhambra’, which were visible from the house.

This house, in the south east of the city on Calle Arabial is now a museum. Located next to the Parque García Lorca and with its own beautiful rose garden, Lorca’s house contains all its original furniture, a sketch of Dalí – as if to confirm that, as Lorca said, ‘Dalí’s paintings will live in my house and next to my heart’ – and it really does leave the visitor feeling as if the writer has just popped out for a minute or two.

Restaurante Chikito

Lorca’s favourite café in Granada was then known as Alameda Café but is now called Restaurante Chikito. It is on Plaza del Campillo near Acera del Casino. Not only did Lorca spend much time here but it was also a favourite of HG Wells and Rudyard Kipling (and apparently, Diego Maradona!).

On August 19th 1936 Falangist soldiers dragged Lorca along with three other men from the café and took them to an olive grove near the village of Alfacar and shot them before throwing their bodies in an unmarked grave.

Parque Federico Garcia Lorca

The spot where the four were executed has been preserved in their memory and often people leave quotations from Lorca’s poems in the branches of the tree where the shooting is believed to have happened. A monument at the site has been erected “in memory of Federico García Lorca and all the victims of the Civil War.” Attempts in 2009 to locate and exhume Lorca’s remains were unsuccesful. The Parque Federico Garcia Lorca was built in the Arabial area of Granada in honour of the city’s most famous son.

Lorca’s writings have the passion and fire of Andalucía with a flavour of surrealism and experimentation and, irrespective of his tragic death, will surely be recognised as some of twentieth century Spain’s finest literature.


Federico Garcia Lorca

Spanish poet and dramatist, Lorca was a talented artist and a member of the 'Generation of 1927', a group of writers who advocated avant-gardism in literature.


García Lorca read law at the University of Granada. At the same time he studied music collaborating in the 1920s with Manuel de Falla, becoming an expert pianist and guitar player. In Madrid he entered the Residence de Estudiantes, a modern college and the intellectual center of the town. During this period his friends included the writers Juan Ramón Jiménez. and Pablo Neruda. He also worked with Salvador Dali and Louis Bunuel in different productions. When the two made their notorious short film Un Chien Andalou (1928), García Lorca was offended:

he thought that the film was about him.

Through recitals of his poetry García Lorca became known even before the publication of his first collection. As a writer García Lorca made his debut with 'Libro De Poemas' (1921), a collection of fablelike poems. In 1923 García Lorca earned a degree in law, but the turning point in his literary career was folk music festival Fiesta de Cante Jondo in 1922, where he found inspiration for his work from the traditions of folk and gypsy music.

In 1927 García Lorca gained fame with his romantic historical play arina Pineda where the scenery was constructed by Salavador Dali and the distinguished actress Margarita Xirgu played the heroine. By 1928, with the publication of RIMER ROMANCERO GITANO he was the best-known of all Spanish poets, and leading member of the 'Generation of 27', which included Luis Cernuda, Jorge Guillen, Pedro Salinas, Rafael Alberti and others.

In 1929-30 García Lorca lived in the city of New York, on the campus of Columbia University. Unable to speak English he suffered a deep culture shock. His suicidal mood was recorded in posthumously published OETA EN NUEVA YORK(1940, Poet in New York), in which he praised Walt Whitman. The poet condemns the frightening, physically and spiritually corrupted city, and escapes to Havana to experience the harmony of a more primitive life.

After a short visit to Cuba, García Lorca was back in Spain by 1931, and continued with theatre productions. He became the head the traveling theatrical company, La Barraca, which brought classical plays and other dramas to the provinces. After the death of his friend, a bullfighter, García Lorca wrote ament for the Death of a Bullfighter(1935), which has been regarded by most critics as his greatest poem. The work is divided into four sections, whose individual motifs are weaved together. The figure of one man facing death in the bullring, exemplified by his friend Ignacio Sánchez Mejías, expressed the author's tragic sense of death. Mejías himself had written a play and he was well-known in the literary circles.

García Lorca's central themes in his works are love, pride, passion and violent death, which also marked his own life. The Spanish Civil War began in 1936 and García Lorca was seen by the right-wing forces as an enemy. The author hid from the soldiers but he was soon found, dragged from a friend's house, and shot in Granada on August 19/20 of 1936 without trial by the Nationalists. The circumstances of his death are still shrouded in mystery. He was buried in a grave that he had been forced to dig for himself.


Indice

L'infanzia Modifica

García Lorca nacque a Fuente Vaqueros, nella provincia di Granada (in Andalusia), il 5 giugno del 1898, figlio di Federico García Rodríguez un ricco possidente terriero, e di Vicenta Lorca Romero (1870-1959), un'insegnante, seconda moglie del padre [3] , dalla fragile e cagionevole salute, al punto che ad allattare il figlio non sarà lei stessa, ma una balia, moglie del capataz [4] del padre, e che tuttavia eserciterà una profonda influenza nella formazione artistica del figlio: lascia infatti presto l'insegnamento per dedicarsi all'educazione del piccolo Federico, al quale trasmette la sua passione per il pianoforte e la musica: [3]

«Canticchiava le canzoni popolari ancor prima di saper parlare e si entusiasmava sentendo suonare una chitarra»

La madre gli trasmetterà altresì quella coscienza profonda della realtà degli indigenti e quel rispetto per il loro dolore che García Lorca riverserà all'interno della propria opera letteraria.

Federico trascorre un'infanzia intellettualmente felice ma fisicamente afflitta da malattie [3] nell'ambiente sereno e agreste della casa patriarcale di Fuente Vaqueros fino al 1909, quando la famiglia, che nel frattempo si era accresciuta di altri tre figli - Francisco, Conchita e Isabel, mentre un quarto, Luis, morì all'età di soli due anni per polmonite - si trasferisce a Granada.

Gli studi e le conoscenze a Granada Modifica

A Granada frequenta il "Colegio del Sagrado Corazón", che era diretto da un cugino di sua madre, e nel 1914 si iscrive all'Università, frequentando dapprima la facoltà di giurisprudenza (non già per personale aspirazione, ma per seguire i desiderî paterni [3] ) per poi passare a quella di lettere. [5] Conosce i quartieri gitani della città, che entreranno a far parte della sua poesia, come dimostra il suo Romancero del 1928.

Incontra per la prima volta in questo periodo il letterato Melchor Fernández Almagro e il giurista Fernando de los Ríos, futuro Ministro de Instrucción Pública durante il periodo denominato Seconda Repubblica Spagnola: entrambi (e in special modo il secondo [5] ) aiuteranno in modo concreto la carriera del giovane Federico. Inizia nel frattempo lo studio del pianoforte sotto la guida del maestro Antonio Segura [3] e diventa un abile esecutore del repertorio classico e di quello del folclore andaluso. [5] Con il musicista granadino Manuel de Falla, con cui stringe un'intensa amicizia, collabora all'organizzazione della prima Fiesta del Cante jondo (13 - 14 giugno 1922). [2]

Gli interessi che segnano il periodo formativo spirituale del poeta sono la letteratura, la musica e l'arte che apprende dal professor Martín Domínguez Berrueta che sarà suo compagno nel viaggio di studio in Castiglia, dal quale nascerà la raccolta in prosa Impresiones y paisajes (Impressioni e paesaggi)

L'ingresso alla Residencia de Estudiantes Modifica

Nel 1919 il poeta si trasferisce a Madrid per proseguire gli studi universitari e, grazie all'interessamento di Fernando de los Ríos, ottiene l'ingresso nella prestigiosa Residencia de Estudiantes, confidenzialmente chiamata dai suoi ospiti "la resi", che era considerata il luogo della nuova cultura e delle giovani promesse del '27.

All'Università stringe amicizia con Luis Buñuel e Salvador Dalí, così come con molti altri personaggi di grande rilievo della storia spagnola. [5] Tra questi, Gregorio Martínez Sierra, il Direttore del Teatro Eslava, dietro invito del quale García Lorca scriverà, la sua opera teatrale d'esordio, Il maleficio della farfalla. [3]

Nella Residencia García Lorca rimane nove anni (fino al 1928), [5] tranne i soggiorni estivi alla Huerta de San Vicente, la casa di campagna, e alcuni viaggi a Barcellona e a Cadaqués ospite del pittore Salvador Dalí, a cui lo lega un rapporto di stima e amicizia [6] che coinvolgerà presto anche la sfera sentimentale.

Le prime pubblicazioni Modifica

È di questo periodo (1919-1920) la pubblicazione del Libro de poemas, la preparazione delle raccolte Canciones e Poema del Cante jondo (Poema del Canto profondo), al quale fa seguito il dramma teatrale El maleficio de la maríposa (Il maleficio della farfalla, che fu un fallimento: fu rappresentata una sola volta, e in seguito allo scarso successo García Lorca decise di non farla pubblicare [3] ) nel 1920 e nel 1927 il dramma storico Mariana Pineda [5] per il quale Salvador Dalí disegna la scenografia.

Seguiranno le prose d'impronta surrealista Santa Lucía y san Lázaro, Nadadora sumeringa (La nuotatrice sommersa) e Suicidio en Alejandría, gli atti teatrali El paseo de Buster Keaton (La passeggiata di Buster Keaton) e La doncella, el marinero y el estudiante (La ragazza, il marinaio e lo studente), oltre le raccolte poetiche Primer romancero gitano, Oda a Salvador Dalí e un gran numero di articoli, composizioni, pubblicazioni varie, senza contare le letture in casa di amici, le conferenze e la preparazione della rivista granadina "Gallo" e la mostra di disegni a Barcellona. [7]

Il conflitto interiore e la depressione Modifica

Le lettere inviate in questo periodo da Lorca agli amici più intimi, confermano che l'attività febbrile improntata ai contatti e alle relazioni sociali che il poeta in quel momento vive nasconde in realtà una intima sofferenza e ricorrenti pensieri di morte, malessere su cui molto incide il non poter vivere serenamente la propria omosessualità. [8] Al critico catalano Sebastià Gasch, in una lettera datata 1928, confessa la sua dolorosa condizione interiore:

«Estoy atravesando una gran crisis «sentimental» (así es) de la que espero salir curado»

«Sto attraversando una grave crisi «sentimentale» (è così) dalla quale spero di uscire curato.»

Il conflitto con la cerchia intima di parenti e amici raggiunge il suo apice allorché i due surrealisti Dalí e Buñuel collaborano alla realizzazione del film Un chien andalou, che García Lorca legge come un attacco nei suoi confronti. [9] Allo stesso tempo, la sua passione, acuta ma ricambiata per lo scultore Emilio Aladrén, giunge a una svolta di grande dolore per García Lorca nel momento in cui Aladrén inizia la propria relazione con la donna che ne diverrà moglie. [1] [9]

La borsa di studio e il soggiorno a New York Modifica

Fernando de los Ríos, il suo amico protettore, venuto a conoscenza dello stato conflittuale del giovane García Lorca gli concede una borsa di studio e nella primavera del 1929 il poeta lascia la Spagna e si reca negli Stati Uniti. [9]

L'esperienza statunitense, che dura fino alla primavera del 1930, sarà fondamentale per il poeta, [7] e darà come risultato una delle produzioni lorchiane più riuscite, Poeta en Nueva York, incentrata su quanto García Lorca osserva con il suo sguardo partecipe e attento: una società di troppo accesi contrasti tra poveri e ricchi, emarginati e classi dominanti, connotata da razzismo. Si rafforza in García Lorca il convincimento della necessità di un Mondo nettamente più equo, non discriminante. [9]

A New York, il poeta frequenta i corsi alla Columbia University, trascorre le vacanze estive, invitato dall'amico Philip Cummings, sulle rive del lago Edem Mills e, poi, presso la casa del critico letterario Ángel del Río e alla fattoria del poeta Federico de Onís nel Newburg. [10]

Al rientro nella metropoli alla fine dell'estate rivede alcuni amici spagnoli tra i quali León Felipe, Andrés Segovia, Dámaso Alonso e il torero Ignacio Sánchez Mejías, che si trovava a New York con la famosa cantante La Argentinita, ma il 5 marzo del 1930, dietro invito della Institucíon hispanocubana de Cultura, García Lorca parte per Cuba. [7]

L'esperienza a Cuba Modifica

Il periodo trascorso a Cuba è un periodo felice. Il poeta stringe nuove amicizie tra gli scrittori locali, tiene conferenze, recita poesie, partecipa a feste e collabora alle riviste letterarie dell'isola, "Musicalia" e "Revista de Avance", sulla quale pubblica la prosa surrealistica Degollacíon del Bautista (Decapitazione del Battista). [10]

Sempre a Cuba inizia a scrivere i drammi teatrali El público e Así que pasen cinco años (Finché trascorreranno cinque anni) e l'interesse maturato per i motivi e i ritmi afrocubani lo aiuteranno a comporre la famosa lirica Son de negros en Cuba che risulta essere un canto d'amore per l'anima negra d'America.

Il rientro in Spagna Modifica

Nel luglio del 1930 il poeta rientra in Spagna che, dopo la caduta della dittatura di Primo de Rivera, sta vivendo una fase di intensa vita democratica e culturale.

La realizzazione del teatro ambulante Modifica

Nel 1931, con l'aiuto di Fernando de los Ríos, che nel frattempo è diventato Ministro della Pubblica istruzione, García Lorca, con attori e interpreti selezionati dall'Istituto Escuela di Madrid con il suo progetto di Museo Pedagocico, realizza il progetto di un teatro popolare ambulante, chiamato La Barraca che, girando per i villaggi, rappresenta il repertorio classico spagnolo. [11]

Conosce in questi anni Rafael Rodríguez Rapún, segretario de La Barraca e studente d'ingegneria a Madrid, che sarà l'amore profondo [12] dei suoi drammi e delle sue poesie e al quale dedicherà, benché non esplicitamente, i Sonetti dell'amor oscuro, pubblicati postumi. [1]

García Lorca, che è l'ideatore, il regista e l'animatore della piccola troupe teatrale, vestito con una semplice tuta azzurra a significare ogni rifiuto di divismo, porta in giro negli ambienti rurali e universitari il suo teatro che riscuote grande successo e che svolge senza interruzione la sua attività fino all'aprile del 1936, [7] a pochi mesi dallo scoppio della guerra civile.

È durante questo tour con La Barraca, che García Lorca scrive le sue opere di teatro più note, e denominate 'trilogia rurale': Bodas de sangre, Yerma e La casa di Bernarda Alba. [2]

Le ultime opere letterarie Modifica

L'attività teatrale non impedisce a García Lorca di continuare a scrivere e compiere diversi viaggi con gli amici madrileni, nella vecchia Castiglia, nei Paesi Baschi e in Galizia.

Alla morte dell'amico banderillero e torero Ignacio Sánchez Mejías avvenuta il 13 agosto del 1934 (dopo che era stato ferito da un toro due giorni prima), il poeta dedica il famoso Llanto (Compianto) e negli anni successivi pubblica Seis poemas galegos (Sei poesie galiziane), progetta la raccolta poetica del Diván del Tamarit e porta a conclusione le opere teatrali Doña Rosita la soltera o El lenguaje de las flores (Donna Rosita nubile o Il linguaggio dei fiori). [13]

All'inizio del 1936 pubblica Bodas de sangre (Nozze di sangue) il 19 giugno porta a termine La casa de Bernarda Alba dopo aver contribuito, nel febbraio dello stesso anno, insieme a Rafael Alberti e a Bergamín, a fondare l'"Associazione degli intellettuali antifascisti".

Lo scoppio della guerra civile Modifica

Stanno intanto precipitando gli eventi politici. Tuttavia, García Lorca rifiuta la possibilità di asilo offertagli da Colombia e Messico, i cui ambasciatori prevedono il rischio che il poeta possa esser vittima di un attentato a causa del suo ruolo di funzionario della Repubblica. Dopo aver respinto le offerte, il 13 luglio decide di tornare a Granada, nella casa della Huerta de San Vicente, per trascorrervi l'estate e tornare a trovare il padre. [2]

Rilascia un'ultima intervista, al “Sol” di Madrid, in cui c'è una eco delle motivazioni che l'avevano spinto a rifiutare quelle offerte di vita fuori dalla Spagna appena menzionate, ed in cui tuttavia García Lorca chiarisce e ribadisce la propria avversione verso le posizioni di estremismo nazionalistico, tipiche di quella destra che prenderà da lì a poco il potere, instaurando la dittatura:

"Io sono uno Spagnolo integrale e mi sarebbe impossibile vivere fuori dai miei limiti geografici però odio chi è Spagnolo per essere Spagnolo e nient'altro, io sono fratello di tutti e trovo esecrando l'uomo che si sacrifica per una idea nazionalista, astratta, per il solo fatto di amare la propria Patria con la benda sugli occhi. Il Cinese buono lo sento più prossimo dello spagnolo malvagio. Canto la Spagna e la sento fino al midollo, ma prima viene che sono uomo del Mondo e fratello di tutti. Per questo non credo alla frontiera politica."

Pochi giorni dopo esplode in Marocco la ribellione franchista, che in breve tempo colpisce la città andalusa e instaura un clima di feroce repressione.

L'arresto e la fucilazione Modifica

Il 16 agosto 1936, il sindaco socialista di Granada (cognato del poeta) viene fucilato. Lorca, che si era rifugiato in casa dell'amico poeta falangista Luis Rosales Camacho, [2] viene arrestato lo stesso giorno dall'ex rappresentante della CEDA, Ramón Ruiz Alonso.

Numerosi si levano gli interventi a suo favore, soprattutto da parte dei fratelli Rosales e del maestro de Falla [14] ma nonostante la promessa fatta allo stesso Luis Rosales che García Lorca sarebbe stato rimesso in libertà "se non ci sono denunce contro di lui", il governatore José Valdés Guzmán, con l'appoggio del generale Gonzalo Queipo de Llano, dà ordine, segretamente, di procedere all'esecuzione: a notte fonda, Federico García Lorca è condotto a Víznar, presso Granada, e all'alba del 19 agosto del 1936 viene fucilato sulla strada vicino alla Fuente grande, lungo il cammino che va da Víznar a Alfacar. [9] Il suo corpo non venne mai ritrovato. [9] La sua uccisione provoca riprovazione mondiale: molti intellettuali esprimeranno parole di sdegno, tra le quali spiccano quelle dell'amico Pablo Neruda.

Un documento della polizia franchista del 9 luglio 1965, ritrovato nel 2015, indicava le ragioni dell'esecuzione: "massone appartenente alla loggia Alhambra", "praticava l'omosessualità e altre aberrazioni". [15] [16] [17]

Il mancato ritrovamento del corpo di Lorca, tuttavia, accende un'intensa controversia circa i dettagli di questa esecuzione. Controversia ancora adesso tutt'altro che risolta.

Nel 2009 a Fuentegrande de Alfacar (Granada), tecnici incaricati dalle autorità andaluse di condurre uno studio specifico per l'individuazione della fossa comune, dove si suppone sia stato gettato il corpo, accertarono con l'impiego del georadar l'esistenza effettiva di una fossa comune con tre separazioni interne, dove riposerebbero sei corpi.

Il 29 ottobre 2009, sotto la spinta del governo andaluso, sul sito individuato, iniziarono i lavori di scavo con l'obiettivo di individuare gli eventuali resti del poeta questi avrebbero dovuto interessare un'area di circa 200 metri quadrati per una durata di circa due mesi.

Assieme ai resti di García Lorca era atteso il rinvenimento di quelli di almeno altre tre persone: i banderilleros anarchici Joaquín Arcollas e Francisco Galadí e il maestro repubblicano Dioscoro Galindo. Secondo le autorità della regione autonoma dell'Andalusia, sarebbero stati sepolti nella stessa zona e forse nella stessa fossa comune anche l'ispettore fiscale Fermín Roldán e il restauratore di mobili Manuel Cobo. [18] Nel 2011 però il governo dell'Andalusia ha interrotto le ricerche per mancanza di fondi. Infine, il 19 settembre 2012, il Tribunale di Granada ha archiviato la richiesta di esumazione, interrompendo con ciò ogni attività di ricerca. [19]

Lorca sotto la dittatura franchista Modifica

La dittatura di Franco, instauratasi, impone il bando sulle sue opere, bando in parte rotto nel 1953, quando un Obras completas - pesantemente censurata - viene fatto pubblicare. Quell'edizione tra l'altro non include i suoi ultimi Sonetos del amor oscuro, scritti nel novembre del 1935 e recitati unicamente per gli amici intimi. Quei sonetti, di tema omosessuale, saranno addirittura pubblicati solo a partire dall'anno 1983.

Con la morte di Franco nel 1975, García Lorca ha potuto finalmente e giustamente tornare ad essere quell'esponente importantissimo della vita culturale e politica del proprio Paese.

Nel 1986, la traduzione in lingua inglese fatta dal cantante e autore Leonard Cohen della poesia di García Lorca "Pequeño vals vienés", e musicata dallo stesso Cohen, raggiunge il primo posto all'interno della classifica dei dischi più venduti in Spagna.

Oggi, la memoria di García Lorca viene solennemente onorata da una statua in Plaza de Santa Ana, a Madrid, opera dello scultore Julio López Hernández.

Pur esistendo importanti edizioni dell'opera completa di Lorca non si ha ancora un testo definitivo che metta fine ai dubbi e agli interrogativi nati intorno ai libri annunciati e mai pubblicati e non si è ancora risolta la questione della genesi di alcune raccolte importanti.
Si può comunque dire che la produzione che conosciamo, insieme ai materiali inediti recentemente trovati, è sufficiente ad offrirci una chiara testimonianza della corrispondenza dell'uomo con la sua poesia.

In un primo tempo Lorca manifesta il suo talento come espressione orale seguendo lo stile della tradizione giullaresca. Il poeta infatti recita, legge, interpreta i suoi versi e le sue pièce teatrali davanti agli amici e agli studenti dell'università prima ancora che siano raccolte e stampate.

Ma García Lorca, pur essendo un artista geniale ed esuberante, mantiene verso la sua attività creativa un atteggiamento severo chiedendo ad essa due condizioni essenziali: amor y disciplina.

Impresiones y paisajes Modifica

Nella raccolta di prose Impresiones y paisajes che esce nel 1918 dopo il viaggio in Castiglia e Andalusia, García Lorca afferma le sue grandi doti d'intuizione e di fantasia. La raccolta è densa di impressioni liriche, di note musicali, annotazioni critiche e realistiche intorno alla vita, la religione, l'arte e la poesia.

Libro de poemas Modifica

Nel Libro de poemas, composto dal 1918 al 1920, Lorca documenta il suo grande amore per il canto e la vita. Dialoga con il paesaggio e con gli animali con il tono modernista di un Rubén Darío o un Juan Ramón Jiménez facendo affiorare le sue inquietudini sotto forma di nostalgia, di abbandoni, di angosce e di protesta ponendosi domande di natura esistenziale:

Che cosa racchiudo in me
in questi momenti di tristezza?
Ahi, chi taglia i miei boschi
dorati e fioriti!
Che cosa leggo nello specchio
d'argento commosso
che l'aurora mi offre
sull'acqua del fiume?
.

In questi versi sembra di sentire il sottofondo musicale che, modulando la pena del cuore, riflette la situazione d'incertezza vissuta e il suo distacco dalla fase dell'adolescenza.

Un momento di grande rilevanza per la vita artistica di Federico Garcia Lorca è l'incontro con il compositore Manuel De Falla avvenuto nel 1920. Grazie alla sua figura Lorca si avvicina al Cante Jondo, che mescolandosi con la sua poesia dà origine alle raccolte delle Canciones Españiolas Antiguas, armonizzate al pianoforte proprio dallo stesso Lorca.

Il periodo che va dal 1921 al 1924 rappresenta un momento molto creativo e di grande entusiasmo anche se molte delle opere prodotte vedranno la luce solo anni dopo.

Poema del Cante jondo Modifica

Il Poema del Cante jondo, scritto tra il 1921 e il 1922 uscirà solamente dieci anni dopo. In esso vi sono tutti i motivi del mondo andaluso ritmati sulle modalità musicali del cante jondo a cui il poeta aveva lavorato con il maestro de Falla in occasione della celebrazione della prima Fiesta del Cante jondo al quale Lorca aveva dedicato, nel 1922, la conferenza Importancia histórica y artística del primitivo canto andaluz llamado "cante jondo".

Il libro vuole essere un'interpretazione poetica dei significati legati a questo canto primitivo che esplode nella ripetizione ossessiva di suoni e di ritmi popolari, come nelle canzoni della siguiriya, la soleá, la petenera, la tonáa, la liviana, accompagnate dal suono della chitarra:

Primeras Canciones, Suites - Canciones Modifica

In Primeras Canciones ma soprattutto in Canciones, il poeta, su variazioni di tipo musicale espresse con un linguaggio cifrato, dimostra tutta la sua abilità nel cogliere il mondo della tenerezza infantile.

Manca in queste liriche ogni traccia di eloquenza e si nota una maggiore rapidità di sguardo e di sintesi che riesce a cogliere l'immagine di un paesaggio che sembra sospeso tra il sogno e la realtà:

Albero albero
secco e verde.

La ragazza dal bel volto
sta raccogliendo olive.
Il vento, corteggiatore di torri,
la prende per la cintura
.

In questi versi i colori, i suoni del mondo gitano vengono rappresentati attraverso una luce particolare che anima gli oggetti.

Così nella breve poesia Caracola (Conchiglia) in cui il poeta, attraverso gli echi e i ritmi interiori, rivive il tempo lieto della fantasia e dell'infanzia:

Mi hanno portato una conchiglia.

Dentro canta
un mare di carta.
Il mio cuore
si riempie d'acqua
con pesciolini
d'ombra e d'argento.

Romancero gitano Modifica

Il successo popolare di Lorca avviene nel 1928 con Romancero gitano che descrive il sentimento di fatalità, di mistero e di dolore del mondo andaluso.

L'opera è composta da diciotto liriche e comprende quattro nuclei tematici: quello del mondo umano nel quale i gitani lottano contro la Guardia Civil quello del mondo celeste rappresentato dai romances di iconografia religiosa quello delle forze oscure e per ultimo quello della realtà di matrice storico-letteraria.

Ad accomunare questi quattro mondi vi è la figura dei gitani con il loro carattere fiero e il loro primitivismo pagano verso i quali Lorca sente di possedere una componente comune che lo rende partecipe della loro sofferenza e della loro ribellione.

Il Romancero si distingue per la ripetizione del verso spagnolo tradizionale (l'estribillo popular) e per le audaci metafore.
Richiamando e facendo proprio, innovandolo, l'uso del romance come forma di scrittura ed impostazione per la sua opera. In esso la parola poetica riesce a cogliere, armonicamente con il linguaggio e la psicologia del mondo gitano, l'oggetto in una dimensione mitica:

In Romancero, attraverso il vento, i colori, i riferimenti simbolici, è presente tutto l'universo emotivo del giovane García Lorca che, con una poesia diretta, fa vibrare la terra d'Andalusia.

In seguito al Romancero gitano, accolto con tanto favore popolare ma disapprovato da Salvador Dalí e da Luis Buñuel per l'eccessivo lirismo tradizionalista, vi è un breve periodo nel quale va situata l'esperienza delle prose poetiche di carattere surrealista, tra le quali Oda a Salvador Dalí, insieme ad alcune bozze teatrali nelle quali il poeta cerca di superare l'elemento biografico senza però mai aderire completamente al movimento surrealista.

Ode a Salvador Dalí Modifica

Nell'ode all'amico Salvador Dalí, Lorca oppone all'estetica del "fiore asettico della radice quadrata" l'immagine della rosa quotidiana come suo ideale di bellezza e di vita:

«Ma anche la rosa del giardino dove vivi.
Sempre la rosa, sempre, nord e sud di noi stessi! [20] »

e lo invita a non scordare l'importanza del sentimento d'amore e la sua verità umana:

«Non è l'Arte la luce che ci acceca gli occhi.
Prima è l'amore, l'amicizia o la scherma. [21] »

Poeta en Nueva York Modifica

Il libro Poeta en Nueva York, composto tra il 1929 e il 1930 ma pubblicato postumo nel 1940, e che alcuni identificano come la sua opera più compiuta, comprende dieci gruppi di liriche, tra cui l'Ode a Walt Whitman e le composizioni nate nel periodo cubano, e costituisce un superamento della poetica precedente, arricchita di ardite immagini surrealiste. [22]

Poeta en Nueva York è una raccolta poetica di gran complessità letteraria dovuta all'elaborazione del linguaggio poetico e alla molteplicità di prospettive contenute nei due temi essenziali che la compongono: la città e il poeta. [23] Attraverso il tema della città Lorca esprime il sentimento di protesta contro la civiltà moderna e la metropoli nella quale identifica il simbolo dell'angoscia e dell'alienazione umana. Nel 1931 New York gli era apparsa come: [24]

«Interpretación personal, abstración impersonal, sin lugar ni tiempo dentro de aquella ciudad mundo. Un símbolo patético: sufrimiento.»

«Interpretazione personale, astrazione impersonale, senza luogo né tempo in quella città-mondo. Un simbolo patetico: sofferenza.»

Il poeta descrive infatti la città nordamericana come meccanismo stritolante e implacabile, alle cui vittime García Lorca guarda con occhio commosso e sensibile. In particolare, poesie come New York oficina y denuncia o Panorama ciego de New York riflettono la sua incendiata critica nei confronti della disumanizzazione, del mancato rispetto nei confronti della natura e dell'emarginazione dei diseredati, che in Romancero gitano erano appunto rappresentati dai gitani, mentre in queste libro sono soprattutto la comunità nera: [25]

«Yo creo que el ser de Granada me inclina a la comprensión simpática de los perseguidos. Del gitano, del negro, del judío. del morisco, que todos llevamos dentro.»

«Io credo che il fatto di essere di Granada mi spinga all'umana comprensione dei perseguitati. Del gitano, del negro, dell'ebreo. del moro, che noi tutti ci portiamo dentro.»

L'altro tema, legato alla propria storia personale, elabora un sentimento di nostalgia del passato e della felicità perduta: [26]

«Era mi voz antigua
ignorante de los densos jugos amargos.
La adivino lamiendo mis pies
bajo los frágiles helechos mojados.

¡Ay voz antigua de mi amor,
ay voz de mi verdad,
ay voz de mi abierto costado,
cuando todas las rosas manaban de mi lengua
y el césped no conocía la impasible dentadura del caballo!»

«Era la mia voce antica
ignara dei densi succhi amari.
La sento lambire i miei piedi
sotto le fragili felci bagnate.

Ahi, voce antica del mio amore,
ahi, voce della mia verità,
ahi, voce del mio aperto costato,
quando tutte le rose nascevano dalla mia lingua
e il prato non conosceva l'impassibile dentatura del cavallo!.»

Struttura Modifica

A causa della complessa storia editoriale del manoscritto, dello stato originale dello stesso e delle sue posteriori manipolazioni, è difficile sapere fino a che punto la struttura attuale corrisponde alle intenzioni del poeta. Ad ogni modo, all'interno dell'opera si possono constatare due strutture: una esterna e una interna. La prima è contraddistinta dai titoli delle diverse sezioni, che presentano questa raccolta come la cronaca poetica del viaggio a New York e all'Avana: il viaggio trattato nelle sezioni coincide approssimativamente con quello intrapreso da García Lorca nel periodo tra il 1929 e il 1930, con l'arrivo a New York, il trasferimento nelle campagne del Vermont, il ritorno in città e il viaggio all'Avana mentre gran parte degli aspetti fondamentali della seconda appaiono in alcune epigrafi. [27]

Le sezioni sono dunque intitolate come segue:

Sono forse i poemi più intimisti di tutta l'opera, che paragonano l'amarezza della sua vita nella metropoli con la felicità della sua infanzia (1910 (Intermedio)). Esprime inoltre la sua delusione per una rottura amorosa (Tu infancia en Menton).

Dedicata ad Ángel del Río. In questa sezione mostra la sua solidarietà con i neri d'America, denunciandone la situazione sociale e rivendicando la loro identità, di cui elogia la vitalità e la purezza primigenia.

Dedicata a Rafael Rodríguez Rapún. Questa è la sezione più descrittiva della città nordamericana in cui il poeta esprime l'impressione che gli provocò il vivere nella grande metropoli, la società meccanizzata ed industrializzata e la disumanizzazione dell'economia capitalista.

Dedicata a Eduardo Ugarte. Il poeta scrive durante la sua permanenza nel Vermont e qui è accentuata la sua depressione a causa della solitudine e del clima della montagna.

Dedicato a Concha Méndez y Manuel Altolaguirre. Scritto durante la sua permanenza in campagna, nell'estate del 1929: le poesie di questa sezione alludono a fatti e persone che il poeta conobbe durante le vacanze.

Sezione dedicata a Rafael Sánchez Ventura nella quale appaiono nuovamente le tematiche della morte e della solitudine, soffermandosi in particolare sulle conseguenze di quest'ultima.

Dedicata ad Antonio Hernández Soriano. I poemi di questa sezione sono stati scritti al ritorno del poeta a New York dopo le vacanze, con l'intento di denunciare la mancanza di solidarietà del sistema capitalista americano e la sua mancanza di etica, tematiche evidenziate in particolar modo nel poema Nueva York (Oficina y denuncia).

Dedicata ad Armando Guibert, in questa sezione compaiono due poesie: Grito hacia Roma e Oda a Walt Whitman. In queste l'autore mette a confronto e denuncia la mancanza di amore da parte della Chiesa, rispetto all'amore puro e autentico personificato in Walt Whitman.

Le poesie di questa sezione hanno un tono più allegro rispetto alle altre: questo è in parte dovuto all'ispirazione che il poeta trae dalla musicalità del valzer, il cui ritmo cerca di essere riprodurre con l'uso del ritornello, e in parte potrebbe essere dovuto alla partenza dalla metropoli.

Questa sezione, dedicata a Fernando Ortiz, presenta un unico componimento: Son de negros en Cuba, in cui si mantiene un tono allegro e si nota un maggior ottimismo nei confronti della vita.

Come spiegato dall'autore stesso in una conferenza, la creazione di questa struttura esterna ha lo scopo di rendere l'opera più accessibile e comprensibile al grande pubblico. Nella stessa, l'autore allude anche alla volontà di trasmettere l'immagine stereotipata del viaggiatore che si sente perso nella grande città e cerca sollievo in campagna, provando felicità nel lasciare la metropoli e nel giungere a Cuba, sebbene anche la campagna si riveli differente dal luogo idilliaco da lui immaginato. [28]

Con le cinque epigrafi presenti nell'opera, che instaurano un dialogo con Cernuda, Guillén, Aleixandre, Garcilaso e Espronceda, Lorca introduce il secondo tema della raccolta: l'infelicità amorosa. Ecco l'elenco:

«Furia color de amor / amor color de olvido»

Nella prima sezione, descrive come l'amore passi dalla furia per l'abbandono all'oblio.

«Sí, tu niñez: ya fábula / de fuentes»

L'epigrafe, in apertura di Tu infancia en Menton, rimanda a Guillén: il poeta, addolorato per l'amore tradito, sembra voltarsi al passato, sebbene non rinunci a cercare una felicità pur sapendo che non potrà avere la purezza della prima volta.

«Un pajaro de papel en / el pecho / dice que el tiempo de los / besos no ha llegado»

In apertura alla terza sezione, l'epigrafe da Aleixandre ripete il dolore di un amore infranto.

«Nuestro ganado pace, el / viento espira»

La citazione da Garcilaso apre il Poema doble del lago Eden.

«La luna en el mar riela, / en la luna gime el viento, / y alza en blando movimiento / olas de plata y azul»

La citazione da Espronceda si legge nell'incipit di Luna y panorama de los insectos (Poema de amor) e sembra alludere al valore della libertà che sprezza la morte.

Le epigrafi lasciano intravedere un mondo complesso e una ricchezza di significati che non possono essere racchiusi in un'interpretazione univoca, rendendo così El poeta en Nueva York una delle opere più complesse dell'autore. [29]

Seis poemas gallegos Modifica

Seis poemas gallegos è un'opera doppiamente unica nel panorama garcíalorchiano: è in galiziano, lingua differente da quella del poeta, e non vi sono altri esempi in tal senso all'interno della sua produzione letteraria. È per questo particolarmente interessante conoscere come è nata.

Lorca visita per la prima volta la Galizia nel 1916, in occasione di un viaggio di studi organizzato da uno dei suoi professori: visita Santiago di Compostela, A Coruña, Lugo, Betanzos e Ferrol. Nella Residencia de Estudiantes di Madrid conosce il musicologo galiziano Jesús Bal y Gay, con l'aiuto del quale si avvicina al folclore musicale di quella terra, in un periodo durante il quale García Lorca sta anche leggendo con grande passione i "cancioneiros galego-portugueses" ed autori galiziani come Rosalía de Castro, Curros Enríquez, Eduardo Pondal, Amado Carballo e Manuel António.

Nel 1931 conosce Ernesto Guerra da Cal, nazionalista galiziano che fin dall'infanzia risiede a Madrid, e che lo introduce all'interno dell'entourage galiziano della capitale spagnola.

Nel maggio del 1932 García Lorca realizza il suo secondo viaggio in Galizia, per dare una serie di conferenze. A Santiago di Compostela fa amicizia con Carlos Martínez-Barbeito.

Nell'agosto del 1932, effettua un terzo viaggio in Galizia, viaggio legato al giro di spettacoli che la sua compagnia teatrale, "La Barraca", sta effettuando in varie città e villaggi della regione, e in novembre tiene una serie di conferenze con Xosé Filgueira Valverde, e pubblica nella rivista Yunque di Lugo il primo dei suoi "poemas galegos": Madrigal â cibdá de Santiago, scritto con l'aiuto di Francisco Lamas e Luís Manteiga.

Nel 1933, Lorca incontra Eduardo Blanco Amor, all'epoca corrispondente del quotidiano argentino La Nación il giornalista si dà da fare affinché Lorca venga conosciuto in Argentina, tanto che, quando Lorca percorre il Paese sudamericano, riceve una calorosa accoglienza da parte della popolazione, soprattutto quella di origine galiziana. Come ringraziamento, Lorca scrive Cántiga do neno da tenda, e una volta tornato in Spagna manterrà con Blanco Amor una forte relazione di amicizia, il quale trascorrerà varie volte il proprio tempo nella casa di Lorca a Fuente Vaqueros. È sempre grazie all'aiuto di Blanco Amor che Federico García Lorca riesce a pubblicare le sue composizioni in galiziano con il libro Seis poemas galegos del 1935, per i tipi dell'editorial Nós: le poesie sono composizioni che da un lato posseggono le stesse caratteristiche di spontaneità di quelle contenute in Canciones, il libro di Lorca del (1927), ma che allo stesso tempo, hanno ritmi propri della tradizione letteraria della Galizia. Quanto alla difficoltà di García Lorca di scrivere in una lingua differente dalla propria, due sono le versioni succedutesi nel corso degli anni: quella di Ernesto Guerra da Cal, che nell'ultimo periodo della propria vita sostenne di essere l'autore della trasposizione in galiziano, affermazione che trovò appoggio da parte di Xosé Luís Franco Grande, e quella, contrapposta, di Eduardo Blanco Amor, secondo la quale le poesie erano sotto tutti i punti di vista da attribuirsi a García Lorca. È quest'ultima tesi quella che ha trovato riscontro nelle indagini successive condotte da vari studiosi.

Llanto por Ignacio Sánchez Mejías Modifica

In seguito alla morte dell'amico torero caduto nell'arena, García Lorca scrive il Llanto por Ignacio Sánchez Mejías (1935), in quattro parti.

Il componimento, dopo l'irrompente inizio della prima parte ("La cogida y la muerte" - Il cozzo e la morte -, introdotta e scandita dalle famose "cinco de la tarde" che suonano in tutti gli orologi del mondo), prende via via un tono più pacato (nella seconda parte, "La sangre derramada" - Il sangue versato - e nella terza parte "Cuerpo presente" - Corpo presente) -, e cede alla fine all'elegia e al rimpianto per l'amico morto levandosi a ricordarne la grandezza al di là della morte (nella quarta e ultima parte "Alma ausente" -Anima assente -, che così termina):

«Yo canto para luego tu perfil y tu gracia.
La madurez insigne de tu conocimiento.
Tu apetencia de muerte y el gusto de su boca.
La tristeza que tuvo tu valiente alegría.

Tardará mucho tiempo en nacer, si es que nace,
un andaluz tan claro, tan rico de aventura.
Yo canto su elegancia con palabras que gimen
y recuerdo una brisa triste por los olivos.»

«Io canto per dopo il tuo profilo e la tua grazia.
La nobile maturità della tua conoscenza.
Il tuo appetito di morte e il gusto della sua bocca.
La tristezza che ebbe la tua coraggiosa allegria.

Passerà molto tempo prima che nasca, se nasce,
un andaluso così illustre, così ricco d'avventura.
Io canto la sua eleganza con parole che gemono
e ricordo una brezza triste fra gli olivi.»

Diván del Tamarit Modifica

Il Diván del Tamarit, scritto fra il 1932 eil 1934 e pubblicato postumo nel 1940, rappresenta la fine del lungo monologo interiore per chiudersi nel silenzio del dramma personale con versi ormai privi di ogni scuola o maniera nei quali il poeta cerca la sua verità interiore.

Ho chiuso la mia finestra
perché non voglio udire il pianto,
ma dietro i grigi muri
altro non s'ode che il pianto.
Vi sono pochissimi angeli che cantano,
pochissimi cani che abbaiano
mille violini entrano nella palma della mia mano.
Ma il pianto è un cane immenso,
il pianto è un angelo immenso,
il pianto è un violino immenso,
le lacrime imbavagliano il vento.
E altro non s'ode che il pianto.

Sonetos del amor oscuro Modifica

Il 17 marzo 1984 verranno pubblicati gli undici Sonetti dell'amore oscuro sul giornale "ABC" che costituiscono il documento della passione privata omosessuale espressi attraverso la forma classica del sonetto.

I sonetti verranno commentati dal poeta Vicente Aleixandre, che nel 1937 ne aveva ascoltato le prime composizioni, come "prodigio di passione, di entusiasmo, di felicità, di tormento, puro e ardente monumento all'amore. ."

«Noche arriba los dos con luna llena,
yo me puse a llorar y tú reías.
Tu desdén era un dios, las quejas mías
momentos y palomas en cadena.

Noche abajo los dos. Cristal de pena,
llorabas tú por hondas lejanías.
Mi dolor era un grupo de agonías
sobre tu débil corazón de arena.

La aurora nos unió sobre la cama,
las bocas puestas sobre el chorro helado
de una sangre sin fin que se derrama.

Y el sol entró por el balcón cerrado
y el coral de la vida abrió su rama
sobre mi corazón amortajado.»

«Notte alta noi due con luna piena.
Io ruppi in pianto mentre tu ridevi.
Il tuo scherno era un dio,
le mie lagnanze momenti e poi colombe senza fine.

Notte bassa noi due. Specchio di pena,
piangevi tu in remote lontananze.
Il mio dolore era un groppo d'agonie
sopra il tuo debole cuore di sabbia.

L'aurora ci congiunse sopra il letto,
le bocche contro il gelido fluire
di uno sbocco di sangue senza fine.

E il sole entrò filtrando dal balcone,
e aprì il corallo i rami della vita
sopra il mio cuore avvolto nel sudario.»

Francisco Umbral nel suo saggio Lorca, poeta maldito pubblicato nel 1978 scrive: ". tutta la drammaturgia di Lorca altro non è che la rappresentazione della sua radicale e personale tragicità interiore".

L'opera teatrale di Lorca è infatti la drammatica rappresentazione del conflitto ontologico personale dell'autore vissuta attraverso personaggi che denunciano le sue stesse inquietudini e tentano di ribellarsi agli stessi pregiudizi.

  • Il maleficio della farfalla (1920)
  • Tragicommedia di don Cristóbal e della siora Rosita (1925)
  • Mariana Pineda (1927)
  • Teatrino di Don Cristóbal (1928)
  • La calzolaia meravigliosa (1930)
  • Il pubblico (1930)
  • Così passano cinque anni (1930)
  • L'Amore di Don Perlimplín con Belisa (1933)
  • Nozze di sangue (1933)
  • Yerma (1934)
  • Donna Rosita nubile (1935)
  • La casa di Bernarda Alba (1936)
  • Commedia senza titolo, incompiuta (1936)

Le prime commedie Modifica

Il tema del sogno e dell'evasione che assumerà un ruolo fondamentale nella successiva drammaturgia lorchiana, è affrontato nell'ingenuo dramma giovanile El maleficio de la mariposa un dramma in versi sull'impossibile amore tra uno scarafaggio e una farfalla, che non è però accolto affatto bene dal pubblico e che spiegherebbe il perché Lorca abbia poi sempre dichiarato che è Mariana Pineda, del 1927, il suo primo copione per il teatro.

Anche in quest'ultima opera, comunque, è dominante il tema del desiderio di libertà nel quale Mariana identifica l'amore e la persona amata.

Le commedie da farsa Modifica

La zapatera prodigiosa (La calzolaia meravigliosa) e El amor de don Perlimplín con Belisa en su jardín sono due deliziose commedie ritagliate dal teatro di burattini che Lorca amava in modo particolare, e che, insieme a Los títeres de cachiporra (I burattini di legno) e Retablillo de don Cristóbal (Teatrino di don Cristóbal), portano avanti il dialogo intimo del poeta tra lirismo e dramma.

Queste commedie da farsa, come annunciano i sottotitoli, si muovono al ritmo dei ballet con infinita grazia e rappresentano, con il tema predominante dell'evasione dal grigiore della realtà quotidiana, una variante letteraria che si risolve in felice tragicommedia.

Le opere più mature Modifica

Bodas de sangre, Yerma, La casa de Bernarda Alba sono opere che rivelano un Lorca maturo e maggiormente attento ai problemi sociali.

In queste opere i personaggi femminili aspirano all'amore e lottano e si ribellano contro le ipocrisie della vita e scelgono in alternativa allo squallore e alla miseria, la disperazione e la morte.

Nella prima tragedia, Bodas de sangre, la promessa sposa fugge il giorno delle nozze con l'amante Leonardo in Yerma, la protagonista da cui l'opera prende il nome rifiuta il suo stato di sterilità e uccide il marito, simbolo dell'egoismo maschile nella terza Adela, la figlia minore di Bernarda Alba, preferisce il suicidio alla rinuncia all'amore e intorno a lei si crea il silenzio, quello stesso silenzio che pesa sul personaggio femminile di Doña Rosita la soltera o El lenguaje de las flores, il dramma che venne rappresentato nel 1935.

Rosita è una giovane zitella che vive immersa nella solitudine e nel rimpianto dell'amore mancato, ferma con la fantasia alla promessa d'amore naufragata con gli anni e la lontananza.

La pièce surrealista Así que pasen cinco años (1930-1931), come dice il sottotitolo "Leyenda del tiempo", è un'allegoria del tempo dove risalta il contrasto tra l'ansia di amare e la mancata realizzazione del sentimento.

Le ultime opere Modifica

El público, composto nel 1930 e il frammento Comedia sin título (Commedia senza titolo) del 1936 rimasero inedite fino agli anni ottanta e affrontano, l'una, il tema dell'omosessualità, l'altra, della funzione dell'arte e della rivoluzione sociale.

Lorca si apre ad un teatro simbolico e surreale che viene definito "impossibile" e "irrappresentabile" per il suo tempo e la morale corrente, e nel quale anticipa, con coraggio, temi di grande attualità.


LGBT History Month 2020: Federico Garcia Lorca (1898-1936)

Federico Garcia Lorca was a Spanish poet and writer whose work was known to be part of a movement of avant-garde forms of expression.

Gay and reportedly in love with Salvador Dali, Garcia Lorca included a lot of homoromantic themes in his writings, which led his work to be mostly censored in Spain until the 1970’s.

Influenced by gypsy culture, he published his poetry collection Romancero Gitano, or Gypsy Ballads in 1928 and received a lot of praise and popular attention, and the following year travelled to New York, where he found a connection between Spanish deep songs and the African American spirituals he heard in Harlem, which greatly impacted his later work.

“Ya suben los dos compadres
hacia las altas barandas.
Dejando un rastro de sangre.
Dejando un rastro de lágrimas.
Temblaban en los tejados
farolillos de hojalata.
Mil panderos de cristal
herían la madrugada.

Now the two friends climb up,
up to the high balconies.
Leaving a trail of blood.
Leaving a trail of teardrops.
Tin bell vines
were trembling on the roofs.
A thousand crystal tambourines
struck at the dawn light.”

He lived in Spain under Franco’s dictatorship, and both his sexuality and his left-wing political views made him a target for the authoritarian government and their sympathisers. He was branded a socialist and a participant in “homosexual and abnormal practices”, which, as you can guess, did not play in favour of his life expectancy under a fascist government. He was shot in 1936, and although the exact identity of his killers is still unknown, it is widely assumed he was murdered by members of a Nationalist militia.

Federico Garcia Lorca has since become a national symbol of the fight for gay rights, but for a long time, his sexuality was kept secret. In Lorca y el Mundo Gay (Lorca and the Gay World), his biographer, Irish historian Ian Gibson writes “ Spain couldn’t accept that the greatest Spanish poet of all time was homosexual. Homophobia existed on both sides in the Civil War and afterwards it was a national problem. Now Spain permits same-sex marriage. That taboo must be broken.”

List of site sources >>>


Watch the video: Μίλτος Πασχαλίδης - Federico Garcia Lorca (January 2022).